The material culture of Kazakhs: housing, tools, weapons, clothing, utensils, etc

  1. The material culture of Kazakhs: housing, tools, weapons, clothing, utensils, etc.

 

 The dwelling of the Kazakh people – a remarkable monument of material culture. It is divided into winter and summer, differing veli¬chinoy and design. In the summer, the Kazakhs lived in the lung perenos¬nyh dwellings in permanent winter-warm rooms “agash ui”, “Jer ui”, “car there.” Yurt – collapsible houses made of wood and felt, consisted of “kerege” – core (wooden reshet¬ka), spherical dome – “shanrak” radially spaced poles (uyk). The size of the yurt was dependent on the number of wings – rope (parts kerege). Yurt, which consists of 12 wings, had an area of ​​100-120 square meters. m. 12, -15, -18 – rope yurts have existed since the XII century. before the beginning of the XIX century. Each grid (kerege) consists of 36 planks – “saganaki” bent in the middle. Gratings are of two kinds: from the massive slats small square grid – “goat torus” and thin straps coarse mesh – “des goats.” Entrance to the tent, usually facing south, has a rectangular opening. The double doors are often covered with carvings. Lattice frame tent outside obkladyva¬las mats of reeds – shymshi. Over mats frame tent covered with felt. From the middle of the roof to the ground yurt po¬kryvali tuyrlyki from shanyrak to bottom svoda- Uzuki. Felt cover fastened to the body with ropes and patterned ribbons – bsldeu. Body yurt decorated with hanging carpet strips and ribbons with fringe and tassels of multicolored yarns sherstya¬nyh. According to the purpose of the yurt were divided into three main types. Ceremonial tent for receiving guests, are large and rich decoration. Ceremonial yurts consist of a minimum of twelve ropes, covered with white felt and silk. Most of the rich decoration were wedding tent – otau. Yurts, which served housing, were smaller. Malen¬kie camping tent can be transported on a single camel or a horse. In addition, the yurt, used as a warehouse and other outbuildings. Hiking yurt can be attributed to the type of specialized, pred¬naznachavshihsya for military campaigns or shepherds and herdsmen. The simplest portable housing was the tent – “trigger,” which consisted of uykov set cone and covered with felt. Most often used in the campaign tent “zholama ui”, consisting of three or four grids – kerege and uykov. In addition, the Kazakhs during migrations used vmestitel¬nye mobile home on wheels kuyme. They were covered with a cloth, felt or leather of various colors. In kuyme living children and women. The center of the yurt – oshak – served as a cooking and heating in the cold. Opposite the entrance of the yurt was a place of honor – tor – for guests and distinguished people. The space at the door called “bosaga.” Right from the entrance located utensils and containers, left – harness. To the right of the bed was bosaga owners of the house, separated by a curtain – shymyldyk. Yurt consisted of various wooden and leather objects, articles of felt, mats and carpets. Widely raspros¬traneny tekemets were felt carpets, felt carpets with appli¬katsiyami – syrmyk less – woven carpets Clem. There are two types of carpets, lint-free -takyrklem s pile-tukti Clem. Rich felt wall hangings, ornamented applika¬tsiyami, inlay and embroidery, called “tuskiiz.”

Utensils and containers stored in hanging bags (ayak-cap), voyloch¬nyh boxes (Shabdan), carpet bags (korzhyn), consisting of two equal pockets and connecting them Peremetnoe part. Nepre¬mennym attribute each yurt had trunks. Wooden predme¬ty – Stand – (beetle ayak), boxes for food (kebezhe) (adalba-kan) were decorated with artistic carvings. In many regions of Kazakhstan were distributed to permanent dwellings made of wood, stones, mud brick turf. Production material called them “agash ui”, “Jer ui”, “kirpish ui”. Plo¬schad homes depended on the state of the host material and the composition of the family, but in general it was the most adapted to the nomadic way of life.

The Kazakh national costume reflected the ancient traditions associated with ethnic, economic and climatic uslovi¬yami. Clothing was made of cloth, wool and silk tka¬ney, felt and fur. Kazakhs special value used the skins of wild asses, saiga antelope and the tigers, raccoon fur, sable, marten, gornos¬taya. From the skins sewed fur (tone). Fur coats from fur fur-bearing animals called “Isik” and differ in coverage: fur coat, covered with silk-bass tone blue cloth Kok tone brocade Barsha tone. Long coat with a collar made of animal skins coltish – zhargak tone. From goat skins plucked long hairs, leaving only pod¬sherstok and sewed fur coats “kylka zhargak.” Stockings were made of suede, cloth, armyachiny, decorated with rich embroidery. In XV-XVII centuries. particularly popular light cloak-kebenek sleeveless coat of fine and white felt -kattau. By the old kinds of clothes is also shekpen – a long cloak of camel’s hair. The main type of men’s and women’s outerwear was a robe – shapan, shivshiysya of sherstya¬nyh and silk fabrics. Set of men’s clothing in the summer of underwear shirt, pants and double robe, women – of tunic dresses (koylek) and sleeveless jackets (zhensiz coat). To prepare the women’s clothing used cotton and silk fabrics, bar¬hat. Men’s and women’s hats were different variety. The most ancient and traditional male headdress – kalpak – from thin felt. The high hat of white felt called ak kalpak, hats with wide, curved upward fields – AIR kalpak. In spring and autumn Kazakhs wore hats Borik, round in shape with a high cone-shaped top, be sure to otorochen¬nye fur. Winter Hats – Treukhov called “tymak.” Borik girl decorated with pendants and feathers owl, herons and peacocks. Trimmed with beaver fur hats maiden nazyva¬lis “Kamshat Borik” embroidered in gold – “Altyn Borik” ukrashen¬nye corals – “kalmarzhan Borik.” Summer light cap of velvet or brocade – “takiya” – decorated with tufts of feathers, vyshiv¬koy silver and gold. From women’s headwear was the most original piece svadeb¬ny saukele – tall, cone-shaped, decorated with gold and silver coins, corals and pearls, diadems and pendants. With the birth of the first child young woman wore a headdress of white cloth – kimeshek. Men and women differed obuvtakzhe diversity. Muzh¬skie boots with very high heels with a top above the knee called “shonkayma etik” soft boots with turned-up toes, lightweight, comfortable riding Bir taka and ichigi – Masi – from goat yufti and galoshes – kebis – out denser skin. In the winter wore saptama etik, the poor – shock and Sharko. Women’s shoes differed from male elegance, with rich ornamentation. Casual shoes were shoes – kebis. Wealthy women wore boots ornamented – Keszthely etik, high-heeled shoes made of green leather – “cook sauyr” decorated with patterned embroidery and silver inlay. Mandatory part of the Kazakh costume were leather belts, velvet, wool and silk – beldik. Belts of leather, decorated with embossed, sculpted plates of silver inlaid, polu¬dragotsennymi stones, carved ivory plates. Such patterned belt called “articles». The young men were not nabor¬nymi belt and had no hangers. Women’s belt was wider and more ornate and sewed mainly of silk and velvet. Also wore sashes soft – chickens.

 Women’s jewelry made of gold, silver, precious stones. Massive silver bracelets “blezik” gilded and inlaid. Earrings were produced mostly from sereb¬ryanoy wire in the form of arches, rings, pendants with semiprecious stones, often – from the rhombic and round plates held together by chains. Widely used nakosnye decorations – shashbau-a series of medallions or plates, interconnected rings. Central medallion is always decorated with filigree vstavka¬mi of colored stones. By nakosnym jewelry and treated pod¬veski “sholpy.” Signet rings were cast and chased, beaters oval, round, pear-shaped, multi-faceted forms. Often decorated with rings vstav¬kami of colored stones. Kazakh jewelers produced and other ornaments: nagrud¬nye – omyrausha, BID-zhiek “fight tumar” fasteners to belts – ilgek, curly badges to saukele-shyltyr massive globular buttons – torsyldak tuyme pins – tuireuish. In the manufacture of women’s jewelry using different techniques: casting, engraving, embossing, stamping, filigree, cherne¬nie, granulation, enamel.

It was varied and Kazakh weapons. We made of special steel curved sabers – Kylysh; Swords – Selebi, broadswords – Semser. Widely used swords – Sapa, daggers – kanzhar, long knives with a curved blade -zheke auyz, long, narrow blades – Buida pyshak. The most common implements were the bow – Sadak and arrows. Arrowheads were various forms: tetrahedral, rhombic, forked. Spears – Naiza – had steel nako¬nechnik and brush from horse hair. The complex weapons included leather and metal armor – sauyt – steel chain mail of the rings, steel helmet with mesh and a visor, wooden boards and kozha¬nyh clad with iron plates. Since the end of the XVII century. and began to use guns, purchased part in the cities of Central Asia, a part made by the Kazakhs. Guns were several types: with a wick and an ornament silver-notch bilteli myltyk without incisions myltyk car, with a short-barreled samkal. Barreled gun, shooting at seven hundred meters, called “goat Kosh”. Gunpowder and bullets manufactured Kazakhs themselves, often bought at the neighbors. We used the cudgel “soyyl” and Shokpar from birch poles, but during the war they were rarely used. Food Kazakhs consisted mainly of meat and dairy produk¬tov. Dairy food was varied.

Spiritual Culture. Creativity zhyrau 15-17.

Culture Kazakhs in XVI-XVII centuries .In this time formed a kind of folklore, oral and written literature, original musical art. Since the XIX century. gradual destruction of the spiritual values ​​of Kazakh society, the traditional Kazakh culture.
In his epics people tried to guess the secret of the origin of life, the emergence of heaven and earth, the names of the surrounding countryside. For example, the Big Dipper in the different historical periods had different names: “Seven” “Seven Elders”, “Seven Thieves.” The names of the constellations related to the pastoral way of life, a night guard the herds. The people of the economic activities connected with the position of the sun relative to the Pleiades, for failure to orientiro¬vatsya star leads to tragedy. For merchants, mistaking Venus with Jupiter, have gone astray, and the caravan was killed. This incident was the basis for the epic “The death of the donkeys.”
XVI – time special heyday of Kazakh literature – known as the era of bard. Zhyrau were improvisers, poets, songwriters, tolgau-reflection and instruction in verse. Often zhyrau were prominent politicians, advisers khans, heads of labor, military commanders.

2.1.Asan Kaigy, Shalkiiz, Kaztugan, Dospambet, Zhiembet, Margaska.

 One of the most famous and revered among the Kazakhs zhyrau was Kaztugan Suyunshiuly. He was born in 1420 on the banks of the Volga near Astrakhan, in a noble family. We have heard three epic bard.
Dospambet was from a noble family of large voena¬chalnika, who lived in the fortress Azak in 90s of XV century. in the lower reaches of the Don. He received military training, and participated in many campaigns. In his songs, he draws a portrait of the ideal warrior, brave Batyr defend their homeland.

Shalkiiz (1465-1560 gg.) Was born on the eastern bank of the Yaik. In poetry Shalkiiza said that he was often close to the emir Nogai Khanate Temir. Shalkiiz bard with his army went on camping trips to the North Caucasus, the Crimea, on the coast of the Don. Caught in the middle of clashes and civil war in his Khanate, he moved to the side of the Kazakh Khanate.

Zhiembet Bortogashuly lived at the end of XVI – first half XVII. He came from a family of well-known leaders of the tribe alshyn. Judging by the content of the remaining songs Zhiembet was a military commander and governor-bey Yesim Khan.

Margaska zhyrau was also a court poet Yesim Khan, accompanied him on his campaigns. Dates of birth and death of the poet unknown. Since he was a contemporary of Yesim Khan, then he lived in the XVII century. It is known for its historic song dedicated Yesim Khan – “The high growth of the hero Yesim”, consisting of seven thousand lines.

2.2.Zhyrau 18. Buhar zhyrau Aktamberdy, Umbetov, Tatikara.

 Buhar zhyrau Kalkamanuly (1693-1787 gg.) Was a singer and sovet¬nikom Abylaikhan his bey. He became the head of the Kazakh Khanate. In one song, he shares his thoughts. Zhyrau Bukhara was one of the most influential in the biys Tauke and Abylai Khan. He is the author of a large number of songs dedicated to the unity of the state, protect it from external enemies.

Aktamberdy Saryuly (1675-1768 gg.) Was born in southern Kazakhstan, in the spurs of Karatau, in a wealthy family. With 17 years he took part in the wars between the Kazakh and Central Asian khanates. In 1729, he was sentenced to death, but escaped from custody. 136 Zhyrau took part in the Patriotic War (1723-1730 gg.) Against Jungars. He was aksakals head kind of Middle Juz. After the expulsion from the Kazakh land Jungars Aktamberdy directed placement of Kazakh tribes to their ancestral lands. Zhyrau died at the age of 93 years in the town Zhurekty Abai district of Semipalatinsk region today. On the hill erected mausoleum where he was buried zhyrau. Aktamberdy was the traditions of their predshestven¬nikov – zhyrau Dospambeta, Shalkiiza. The songs can be heard Aktamberdy their characteristic tone, contrast, and its own vision of what is happening surprisingly accurate metaphor.

Akin was born near Lake Tatikara Sarykol near Kostanai, in the family of a wealthy cattleman. He was a favorite of Abylai Khan and followed him everywhere. Khan appreciated the ability to improvise Tatikary in all circumstances, his wit and resourcefulness, courage and bravery. When in the midst of a hot battle Tatikara felt that the enemy wavered, he began to immediately execute combat zhyr inspiring to the exploits of soldiers and sacrifice. At the bard was another peculiarity: he spoke of his zhyrah childbirth each said tribal warrior. Thus, in his zhyre “At the tip of the cane rare, and the root of the strong”, he glorifies the heroism Bokey – Batyr kind of Dulats, Daripsali and Mandi – of a kind uakov and other warriors. So save the song Tatikary have great historical value.

Umbetov zhyrau (1706-1778 gg.) Was born in this Yereimentau region of Akmola region. He knew the folklore, many poems and epics recited, studied history, musical culture, and received a good literary education from his father Tleuuly, who was himself a bard playing kobyz, for which he received the people the title of “Abyz” t .e. pevtsa- storyteller. Umbetay zhyrau extolled the heroism of the soldiers, telling of their exploits people. So, in zhyrah “Hey, Aktamberdy, Kabanbai”, “Biya Bekbolat”, “Death Bogenbay” contains many historically valuable information.

2.3. The role of the bard in the Kazakh society.

 Thus, XV-XVIII cc. contemporary history of the people – bard – the singers were good, heroic deeds of the country, together with the people experiencing difficulties to overcome them. Zhyrau were not only the creators and distributors of epic poems, they were elders, elders, Batyr generals. Zhyrau also acted as advisers to the opinion that prislushi¬valis Kazakh khans. Their names will remain forever in the history of the Kazakh people.
Oral and written literature is further developed and enriched during the beginning of the XV-H1Hvv. She was successively linked to the culture of the previous time, served as the basis, the foundation for the further development of the Kazakh national literature. Songs. In XV-XVII centuries. widely it develops different genres Kazakh folklore. A special place is occupied by ceremonial songs, which were performed at birth, weddings, during the illness, the death of a man at a wake at a meeting of the new year.

  1. Creativity biys.
    3.1. Ritual songs and tales. The heroic epic.

 Folk festival accompanied by music and contests akyns improvisers (aitys). Every great feast of sport accompanied narod¬nye games cook – Bory (gray wolf) and Kiz-bori (wolf-virgin), genetically traced back to the ancient totemic representations. More massive war game wore sports – zharys (horse racing) and a big battue hunting (aba, Camargo). Complex kind of sports was Altyn-tavern (shooting in a gold disc). Marksman (Mergen) received valuable prizes. Later, along with Altyn – the pub was extended shooting serebrya¬ny disk (Jamba atu).
Fairy tales and epics. One of the genres of oral tradition is a fairy tale. Fairy Kazakh repertoire is rich and diverse reflect the life of the people. Historical and cultural processes directly related to the socio-economic development of the population. Nomadic pastoralism and irrigated agriculture formed the basis of a common culture of the tribes of Kazakhstan. A significant influence on the culture of the Kazakh people rendered culture of neighboring peoples, especially the Volga region, Siberia and Central Asia. It left its mark in Kazakhstan Muslim culture. Thus, in the XV – beginning of XIX Kazakhstan functioned common culture, which was based on the best traditions of the culture of the ancient tribes of the Kazakh steppes.
Epos- heroic narrative of the past, containing a complete picture of people’s life and representing a harmonious unity in a world of epic heroes heroes.

3.2. Socio household poem.

 The main theme in the domestic, lyrical poems – the theme of love, the suffering of young people fighting for their happiness with the obstacles created by the patriarchal-feudal way of life. Significant place in the lyrical poems given to the description of everyday life, customs and traditions of the people. By the Kazakh Social Welfare poems include: “Goats Korpesh and Bayan Sulu”, “Kyz Zhibek”, “Kulshe-Kiz”, “Nazymbek”, “Sulushash”, “Makbal-Kiz”, “Kola” and others.
The most popular is the poem “Kozy Korpesh and Bayan Sulu”. It is sung touching mutual love Goats Korpesh and Bayan Sulu. Like other lyrical poem, built on the romantic, psychological basis, its plot motifs she draws from real life, from the customary law of the feudal-tribal society. Father Bayan Sulu – Karabai father Korpesh – Sarybai while out hunting one day, swore friendship and gave each other a vow of marriage for their children.
Soon Sarybai died. Father Bayan Sulu – a miser Karabai, not wanting to give his daughter to marry an orphan, migrated to distant lands. Years passed. Bayan and Goats Korpesh become adults. Although they never met, but after learning about the complicity of their parents fell in love.
With each passing day their love grew. However Karabai decides to give Bayan Sulu married strongman Kodar, who saved his numerous herds of horses in a waterless desert. Goats Korpesh, overcoming great difficulties finding Bayan Sulu. When the lovers want to get married, and Karabai Kodar brutally killed Goats Korpesh. Then Bayan Sulu stabs Kodar, and then kills himself.
The poem reflects the bitter lot of lovers of young people under the domination of patriarchal-feudal relations, extols love as a free human feeling, as an inalienable human right to happiness.
Poem “Goats Korpesh and Bayan Sulu” is deservedly considered to be masterpieces of world literature, calling it the Kazakh “Romeo and Juliet”. Very popular lyric poem “Kyz Zhibek”, a poem about life and love of beauty Zhibek. It tells how a young horseman Tulegen hit the road in search of a bride worthy, and how he found the beauty Zhibek, where before it did not like any of her suitors wooing.
Tulegen Zhibek and loved each other, but the cruel feudal Bazarbai father Tulegen, does not allow him to marry Zhibek. Djigit Bekezhan in love with Zhibek, but rejected it, waylaid Tulegen and treacherously killed him. Geese, witnesses the murder of notifying the Zhibek Zhibek and brothers at her request Bekezhan killed. Since it takes several years.
In the village Zhibek father, Khan Syrlybaya attacked Kalmyk Khan Koren. It requires the issuance of Zhibek Syrlybaya marry him. At this point, the younger brother arrived Tulegen – Sansyzbai. He defeats the enemy and by tradition to marry Zhibek.
This part of the poem tells the story of a marriage Zhibek Sansyzbai reflects the patriarchal custom of marriage, the opposite idea of ​​personal liberty of young people, so vividly and truthfully shown at the beginning of the poem. The poem reflects the ideology of the patriarchal-feudal era and at the same time is highly artistic poetic work.
The compositional harmony, the ability to reveal the inner world, spiritual experiences of people, their joys and sorrows passed juicy and bright language means. Poem “Kulshe-Kiz” – a lyrical love song – belongs to the early period of nogaylinskomu. Topics of Poems “Makbal”, “Sulushash”, “Kola” – a struggle of young people for liberty, for their happiness.
These poems celebrate the presence of class contradictions in Kazakh society, they are imbued with the idea that social inequality is a major obstacle to love. In the poems describes how brave horsemen and Altai Talaydy being laborers, slaves, unable to marry the lovers, are a victim of the harsh laws of feudal society.
Significant impact on the composition of the Kazakh lyric poems were classical poetry and Roma peoples of Central Asia. The lyrical love songs “Zhusup and Zuliha”, “Layla and Majnun”, “Bozzhigit,” “Safe-il-Malik”, “Malik Hasan”, “Tahir and Zuhra” sung in Kazakh villages in the new versions and were widespread .
Suffering lovers prosecution khans, feudal lords of young people who dream of personal freedom, happiness, glorification of romantic love and experiences of the characters – the characteristics of lyrical poems in the literature of the peoples of Central Asia. The lyrical songs and poems of the Kazakh, Uzbek, Turkmen, Tajik peoples have much in common.

3.3. Customs and rites of the Kazakhs.

 Material and spiritual life of the people reflect the traditions and customs. Many historically valuable there in the social, yuridi¬cheskoy and domestic terminology Kazakhs sohraniv¬sheysya in historical tradition. Kazakh folk customs are disclosed in the wedding ritual “kudalyk Salt.” Relationship parents of the bride to the groom were svo¬bodny many rites prescribed by Islam. After the first installment of collusion and dowry the bride had the right to secretly visit the bride, and his first visit (uryn-Kelu), usually hidden by the bride’s parents, took place in the house of his brother or relative of the bride. Vto¬roe visit groom was open and was called “kalyndyk Oyna.” In XV-XVII centuries. Islam has not had much impact on the family life of the Kazakhs, there was the bride’s wedding ceremony in the presence of mullahs. Married ties (zhubaylyk) fastened common odobreni¬em people singing choral songs “heat-fever” is executed at a wedding party. “Jar-Jar” – a song-contest. Her singing is usually two groups of young people: men, led by the groom, women – the bride. The song talks about the position of women in a patriarchal family, expresses sadness girl in connection with the transition to another village, another environment, separation from family, removal from their homes. Pere¬zhivaniya bride, often burdened with the knowledge that she vyho¬dit married against their will, poured into sincere and exciting songs, laments (synsu, “Kyz tanysu”), in which she said goodbye to rod¬nymi and aul, He expressed his sorrow. Tradition demanded that the girl accompanied by her friends farewell song visited every tent and its neighbors villages. This is goodbye girl with native Kazakhs called “Kiz-tany¬su.” In the village bride groom met traditional song “Bet-Ashar” (opening the face of the bride). He had his kanonicheskiytekst of two parts: the first part of the bride usually represent odnoaultsam parents and the groom, the second part consisted of nazida¬ny and instructions bride just crossed the threshold of his family home. In addition to the dowry from the groom preparing ritual podar¬ki: mothers – day-aky (for mother’s milk), the father-of the small (wedding expenses), brother of the bride – Tartu (saddles, belt and so on. N.) Close relatives of the bride – Kade . The poor are often in such cases, assisted by relatives and friends. Do not remain in debt, and the bride’s parents. When they were conspiring to make so nazyva¬emy cargo bau-pledge allegiance to collusion, whale gifts to woo. Dowry (Zhasa) bride is costing them dearly, sometimes pre¬vyshaya cost of dowry. Parents ordered bridal headdress (saukele) and wagon (kuyme). Wealthy parents supplied the bride summer dwellings (otautigipberu) with all the equipment. Funeral ceremonies XV-XVIII centuries. They were mixed: osnovy¬valis as rites of Islam and customary cult “Tanir.” On holidays arranged games: racing (baige), fighting horsemen, athletes (kures), fighting horsemen. For the participants of the games administered prizes. New Year’s Day (on-uryz) Kazakhs celebrated as the beginning of spring.

3.4. Religious beliefs.

 The Kazakhs there was a belief in the afterlife. Therefore, together with the deceased in the grave we put a bow, spear, saddle, head favorite horse, left the dead food and drink. In the house of the deceased held a ceremony the night guard. The next day, the deceased was subjected ochische¬niyu fire, after which he was buried next to hibernation. Horo¬nili khans in Turkestan, in the mosque of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi. In dalnihrayonah at the time of the dead of winter hung on Lesin (litter) and only with the onset of warm weather were taken into Turkestan or other place considered sacred. Grave construction Kazakhs strictly differentiated depending on the social status of the deceased. Along with nadgro¬biyami of adobe bricks in XV-XVII centuries. still existed an ancient tradition – the bulk of the hill of stone. According to ancient custom, the dead man wept for a long time, as a sign of mourning vyra¬zheniya woman scratching her face (bet zhyrtu). The wife, observing the mourning for the deceased husband during the year, wore a black headdress (Kara-fat). Horse of the deceased, on which he traveled in his lifetime (if it was a rich man), covered with mourning blanket. After a year of mourning was filmed being built tombstone and coped wake. Horses clipped the tail, and then stabbed her. Head, hooves and skin of a horse placed on the grave hozyai¬na. An important role in the cultural life of the Kazakhs played folk festivals devoted to the most important events of life – marriage, birth of a child, a wake (AU), and others. Some of them were of a religious nature.
The dominant religion was Islam in Kazakhstan. The main centers of the spread of Islam were of Turkestan, Bukhara and Khorezm. Among the Kazakhs Islam is deeply rooted, the masses were still far from the tenets of Islam and still perform the rites of the ancient religion, agreed on the cult “Tanir” (worship of the sky). Already during ancient time, it has become a edinobo¬zhiya (bir Tanir). In the XV-XVIII centuries. cult “Tanir” has competed with Islam. Contrary to the requirements of Islam Kazakhs worshiped the cult of ancestors, had images of their fathers (buttengri). The manifestations of paganism persecuted Muslim duhoven¬stvom. Bukhara sheiks and kazii inspired Khan Mohammad Sheibani (XVI c.), We decided (fatwa) on which the Kazakhs were considered idolaters, and therefore apostates from Islam. They recommended that Khan declared jihad (holy war) kaza¬ham and destroy the human image. The outlook of the masses in the XV-XVII centuries. dominated animistic conceptions and the cult of the forces of nature, preserved features of ancient mythology, in particular the recognition of the struggle between the two na¬chal: good (Kie) and hostility (kesir). The essence of animism za¬klyuchalas in spiritualization of natural phenomena, the notion that behind every natural phenomenon is hidden spirit that controls them. Kazakh mythology prohibited tear spring green grass, because people saw in it the continuity of life. Kazakhs revered spirit of the earth (Jer-ana) and water (su-ana). Save and name drev¬neyshee sacred fire – alas. According to the Kazakh legend, the fire – the patron of the home hearth. Daughter in law when vstup¬lenii a new family had to bow to the fire in the big house, to sacrifice to the fire by pouring oil into it (otka May kuyu). The Kazakhs preserved ancient rite of purification by fire (Alastan) from the ancient word “alas” – a night light the sacred fire. This rite was accomplished during migrations from wintering on dzhaylau. Since ancient times, it formed a belief that winter nomad camps people often guilty, as are found in homes “impure forces” that bring harm to humans. A dzhaylau pure, blameless, and there appear to be cleaned, so at the beginning of the nomadic road leading to dzhaylau diluted two large fire, which passed between people and flocks of sheep. Horses were considered clean animals and were not subject to purification.

3.5. Written historiography.

 At the turn of a new era of written sources – the Greco-Latin, Persian, Arabic, Chinese writings, Turkic inscriptions on stone stelae. From them we get information about the resettlement of tribes on the territory of Kazakhstan, movements, relations with neighbors protokazahskoy territory.

History of the Middle Ages is reflected in the book, the Turkish historians, philologists, philosophers, in the writings of Arab, Chinese chroniclers, diaries and writings of European travelers and missionaries (for example, the works of Al-Farabi, Iugneki, Yassaui, Bede, Roger Bacon, Marco Polo and others , the annals of the English monasteries).

The most important historical sources are ethnographic materials that help recreate present economy, family life, customs, and rituals of the ancient population.

Important sources of information are the stories of the Kazakh language, change the dictionary, borrowing from other – Arabic, Persian, Russian, and others. – Languages ​​are also important for researchers.

The history of the Kazakhs, as well as many nomadic peoples, passed from mouth to mouth, from generation to generation, and thus to the sources on the history of Kazakhstan are, and the treasures of folklore – epics, tales, legends, genealogies (shezhire), names of the different geographical points ( Kalmak-Kyrylgan, Zaisan, etc.).

Thus, the number of sources on the history of Kazakhstan is wide and rich, constantly updated with new and requires further systematization and study.

At the new level of the Kazakhstan historical science came after gaining sovereignty. First articles appeared in various publications, and then the leading historians of the monograph on the history of Kazakhstan. For example, the book Klyashtorny S. and T. Sultanova “Kazakhstan. Chronicle of three thousand years “,” Alash and Alash Orda “K. Nurpeisov,” Movement Alash “M. Koygeldieva. In 1993 was published summarizing the work of historians, “The history of Kazakhstan from ancient times to the present day” (Essay). It began publishing a fundamental work “History of Kazakhstan” in five volumes, the first volume was published in 1996.

 

 

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The material culture of Kazakhs: housing, tools, weapons, clothing, utensils, etc

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