Kazakhstan is located in Central Asia and is the heartland/geographic center of Eurasia. Kazakhstan is the 9th largest country in the world.  Kazakhstan’s surface is covered by desert, semi-desert, forest and steppe terrain. The highest peak in the country is Khan Tengri. The size of the territory places Kazakhstan ninth in the world, after Russia, Canada, China, USA, Brasil, Australia, India and Argentina. In the east, north and northwest Kazakhstan borders with Russia. In the south it borders with the countries of Central Asia: Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan. In the southeast it borders with China. Kazakhstan lies in the center of the European and Asian continents. The rest of the republic reflects the beauty of forests, mountains, rivers, lakes and reservoirs. The natural landscape is enhanced by thousands of plant and animal varieties found from the northern forest steppes to the high southern mountains. Kazakhstan has an extreme continental climate. The land of Kazakhstan is rich in soils. The greater part of the forest-steppe zone is chernozem. Crossing the territory of Kazakhstan from north to south you will see many different climate zones, with all various areas having their own flora and fauna.  Kazakhstan is famous for its mineral wealth.
Kazakhstan has enormous valuable natural resources. Kazakhstan is one of the richest countries in oil, gas, titanium, magnesium, tin, uranium, gold and other non-ferrous metals production.  Astana is the capital of the Republic. It is situated in the central part of the country. In May 1998 Akmola was renamed Astana, the Kazakh word for capital. The largest cities are Almaty, Karaganda, Shimkent, Pavlodar and Kostanay. There are many rivers and lakes in Kazakhstan. The four rivers are the main resources of water in the country. They are the Irtish in the east, the Syr-Daria in the southwest, the Ili in the southeast, and the Ural in the northwest of the country. The largest lakes are the Balkhash, the Zaysan, the Ala-Kol, and the Tengiz.


Kazakhstan — the constitutional parliamentary-presidential republic. The president is the head of the state and chief supreme commander.

The President of Republic Kazakhstan is voted by full age citizens of Kazakhstan on general, equal, direct and secret vote basis. The President of Republic Kazakhstan is Nursultan Nazarbaev. The Presidents terms of limit are 5 years.

The executive authority is carried out by the government. The system of the executive branch of the government consists of the ministries, services and agencies. The head of the government — the prime minister Karim Masimov.

Legislature is brought into action the Parliament that consists of two Chambers: the Senate and the Mazhilis working on a regular basis.

The Senate is formed by the deputies represented in order of constitution law for two person out of each region, city of republican value and capital of the Republic of Kazakhstan (14 regions, 2 cities). Fifteen deputies of the Senate are appointed by the President in order to fulfill the representation for the Senate of national-cultural and other significant interests of a society.

The Mazhilis consists of the 107 deputies selected by the constitutional law. Terms of limit of deputies in Senate are six years, for deputies of Mazhilis – five years.

Judicial system is a set of all courts of Kazakhstan.

The judicial system includes the Supreme Court of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the local courts established according to the Constitution of RK and the Constitutional law.


The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles are separated from Europe by the English Channel. The British Isles are washed by the North Sea in the East and the Atlantic Ocean in the West.

The population of Great Britain is about 60 million. The largest cities of the country are London, Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester, Glasgow and Edinburgh.

The territory of Great Britain is divided into four parts: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. England is in the southern and central part of Great Britain. Scotland is in the north of the island. Wales is in the west. Northern Ireland is situated in the north-eastern part of Ireland.

England is the richest, the most populated part in the country. There are mountains in the north and in the west of England, but all the rest of the territory is a plain. Scotland is a land of mountains. Its highest peak is Ben Nevis. The British Isles have many rivers. The longest of them is the Severn. It flows into the Irish Sea. The Thames is over 200 miles long. London, the capital of Great Britain, stands on it. Geographical position of Great Britain is rather good as the country lies on the crossways of the sea routes from Europe to other parts of the world.


The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a constitutional monarchy. Britain does not have a written constitution. Parliament is the most important authority in Britain.

The monarch serves formally as head of state. The present sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II (the second).

The House of Commons consists of Members of Parliament. General elections are held every five years. Ail citizens aged 18 have the right to vote.

There are few political parties in Britain. The main ones are: the Conservative Party, the Labour Party.

Each political party puts up one candidate for each constituency. The one who wins the most votes is MP for that area.

The party which wins the most seats in Parliament forms the Government; its leader becomes the Prime Minister.

The functions of the House of Commons are legislation and scrutiny of government activities. The House of Commons is presided over by the Speaker.

The House of Lords is presided by the Lord Chancellor. The House of Lords has no real power.

It’s in the House of Commons that new bills are introduced and debated.

Parliament is responsible for British national policy. Local governments are responsible for organizing of education, police and many others.


In Kazakhstan, like in many other countries of the world, people celebrate such traditional holidays as, for example, New Year and the 8th of March. However, there are several special holidays in Kazakhstan related to the history of the country.

National holidays, public holidays, vocational and other holidays are celebrated in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

National holidays are the holidays established in the Republic of Kazakhstan in honour of the events, which have special historical significance and which had essential impact on the development of Kazakh sovereignty. Celebration of national holidays is accompanied by the official arrangements in the central and local state agencies.

The national holiday in the Republic of Kazakhstan is The Independence Day on 16 December celebrated on 16-17 December.

Public holidays are the holidays devoted to the events, which have public and political significance, and the holidays traditionally celebrated by the citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Celebration of the state holidays can be accompanied by official arrangements.

Public holidays in the Republic of Kazakhstan are the holidays celebrated on the following days:New Year – 1-2 January; International Women’s Day – 8 March; Nauryz Meiramy – 22 March; Unity of the Nations of Kazakhstan – 1 May; Victory Day – 9 May; Constitution Day of the Republic of Kazakhstan – 30 August; Republic Days – 25 October.

Vocational and other holidays are holidays, which do not have the status of national and public holidays celebrated by certain categories of citizens.

Vocational holidays in the Republic of Kazakhstan: Medical Nurse Day – 12 May Day of the Country Defender – 7 May Medical Worker Day – 3rd Sunday in June Day of the National Security Committee – 13 July Knowledge Day – 1 September Day of Languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan – 22 September Teacher’s Day – 1st Sunday in October


I am going to tell you about English customs and traditions. First of all it concerns United Kingdom political system. In Great Britain there is no written constitution, only customs, traditions and precedents. After the English Revolution of Great Britain is a constitutional monarchy headed by King (now Queen, Elizabeth the second). Traditionally the queen acts only on the advice of her Ministers. She reigns but she does not rule. Englishmen have traditions not only in political, but in social life. For example, London , the capital of England , is traditionally divided into three parts: the West End , the East end, and the City. The City is a historical, financial and business center of London . The East End is the district inhabited by the workers, and the West End is a fashionable shopping and entertaining center. English people like to spend their free time in numerous pubs where they can have a glass of beer and talk about different things with their friends. The English are traditional about their meals. They eat eggs and bacon with toasts for breakfast, pudding or apple pie for dessert. Every English family has five o’clock tea. A typical feature of an English house is a fireplace, even when there is central heating in the house. English people like domestic animals. Every family has a pet: a dog, a cat or a bird.
Politeness is a characteristic feature of Englishmen. They often say “Thank you”, “Sorry”, “Beg your pardon”. Russian people, I think, have to learn this good custom. Englishmen have many traditional holidays, such as Christmas, St.Valentine’s Day, Mother’s day, Easter and others.


There are a number of holidays, which are celebrated in Great Britain every year.

One of them is, of course, the New Year’s Day on the first of January. It is not so popular in England as in our country, but it is rather popular in Scotland. On that day people usually visit their friends and there is a lot of dancing and eating. In Scotland people bring a piece of coal for good luck in the New Year. The next holiday of the year is St. Valentine’s Day. It is on the 14th of February. People buy or make Valentine cards and send them to the people they love. In March there is Mother’s Day. All the children and adults, come to their mothers on that day to express their love and gratitude.

In April there is Easter. At Easter children eat chocolate Easter eggs. Sometimes parents hide them in the house or in the garden and children have to look for them.

In June there is Father’s Day. On Father’s Day children give or send their fathers and grandfathers cards and presents.

On the 31st of October there is a Halloween. They say ghosts and witches come out on Halloween. People make lanterns out of pumpkins. Some people have Halloween parties and dress as witches and ghosts.

The 25th of December is Christmas Day. It is one of the people’s favourite holidays. People put Christmas trees in their houses and decorate them. There are beautiful Christmas decorations in the streets. On Christmas Eve everybody puts the presents under the Christmas tree. People say that at night Father Christmas puts presents into the stockings which children usually hang above their beds. The traditional Christmas meal is roasted turkey and Christmas pudding.


The Kazakh people are rich in traditions. From birth through old age and death, every step of their lives has historically been marked with celebration. Even their funeral ceremonies have their own special symbolism.

Unfortunately, many rich and interesting traditions and customs of the Kazakh people have been forgotten throughout the past century. Real sovereignty is just now being reestablished in Kazakhstan due to the process of democratization. These abandoned traditions are just now being rediscovered by the Kazakh people. These traditions include being respectful to old people; being patriotic to the motherland; being honest; and learning to love mankind.

Kazakh yurts. Kazakhstan photos Traditionally every guest is offered Kazakh cuisine at the dastarkhan (the low table) in a yurt. The yurt is one of the most sensible types of movable house. It is a comfortable and practical home, ideally suited to local conditions and ways of life – one of the greatest inventions of the Eurasian nomads. It is easily taken apart (it is said that a Kazakh woman can do it in half an hour) and carried by horses and camels. The yurt consists of three main elements: an extensible trellis base (the kerege), a dome made of poles (the uyk) and a round top (the shanyrak).

Nauryz (Islamic New Year) is one of the biggest holidays in Central Asia. In Kazakhstan it is celebrated on the day of the spring equinox, March 22. On that day, the streets of villages and towns are transformed. Guests are hosted in beautiful yurts with the traditional Nauryz kozhe dish made of seven traditional ingredients. People respecting this nearly month-long holiday forgive each others’ debts and offences.

Kazakh national games National games: these are usually performed on horseback and are an opportunity to witness the Kazakhs’ outstanding riding skills. Kazaksha kures (Kazakh wrestling), baiga (horse racing over 25, 50 or 100 km), kokpar (a sort of polo game played with a dead goat), kyz-kuu (catch the girl) and alty bakan (six-pole swing

ECONOMY OF KZ                                                                                              Kazakhstan or Kazakstan, officially Republic of Kazakhstan. It borders on Siberian Russia in the north, China in the east, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan in the south, and the Caspian Sea and European Russia in the west. Astana is the capital and Almaty (Alma-Ata) is the largest city. Other major cities include Shymkent, Semey, Aqtobe, and Oskemen.

Despite Kazakhstan’s largely arid conditions, its vast steppes accommodate both livestock and grain production. In the 1950s, the Virgin Lands Program under Khrushchev brought hundreds of thousands of Russian, Ukrainian, and German settlers to the area. Wheat, cotton, sugar beets, and tobacco are the main crops. The raising of cattle and sheep is also important, and Kazakhstan produces much wool and meat. In addition, there are rich fishing grounds, famous for their caviar-producing sturgeon, in the N Caspian, although these have been hurt by overfishing.

The Kazakh Hills have important mineral resources. Coal is mined at Qaraghandy and Ekibastuz, and there are major oil fields in the Emba basin (which includes the important Tengiz fields), in the Mangyshlak Peninsula, and at Karachaganak (near the Russian border NE of Aksai). Kazakhstan also has large deposits of natural gas, iron ore, manganese, chrome, lead, zinc, silver, copper, nickel, titanium, bauxite, and gold. The Irtysh River hydroelectric stations are a major source of power.

The country’s industries are located along the margins of the country. Steel, agricultural and mining machinery, superphosphate fertilizers, phosphorus acids, artificial fibers, synthetic rubber, textiles, and medicines are among the manufactured goods. Temirtau is the iron and steel center. Semey was the Soviet center of space-related industries, and the surrounding region was the site of Soviet nuclear testing; radiation pollution is widespread in the area, which experienced a severe economic downturn following the end of nuclear testing in 1991. The Baikonur (Bayqongyr) Cosmodrome in central Kazakhstan was the Soviet space-operations center and continues to serve Russian space exploration through an agreement between the two nations. The main trading partners are Russia, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.


The educational system in Kazakhstan is conducted in two languages – Kazakh and Russian and consists of several levels of state and private educational establishments: infant schools, elementary (or primary) schools, comprehensive schools, colleges and academies. The constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan fixes the right of citizens of the republic on free-of-charge secondary education which is obligatory. Children start school at the age of 7 and finish at 17.
Primary education in Kazakhstan typically begins at age 6 and spans four academic years —Grade 1 through Grade Four.  All primary schools in Kazakhstan are state-owned and constitutionally protected. The curriculum in Kazakhstan’s primary schools includes courses in reading, basic mathematics, writing, Kazakh and Russian language arts, science, social science, art, music and physical education.
The period known as lower secondary or basic school in Kazakhstan is similar to middle or junior high school education in other countries like the United States.  This level of education typically begins at age 10 or 11 and spans a total of five years in duration—Grades 5 through Grade 9.
At the lower levels, the curriculum is very similar to that of the primary school, albeit more advanced, with subjects such as mathematics, general science, social science, Russian or Kazakh language arts (depending on the primary language of the individual school) and physical education.  Older lower secondary education students, such as those in the 8 and 9 grades, can study more advanced subjects such as foreign language, Kazakh, Russian and World Literature, history, algebra (and other higher mathematics courses), physics, biology, chemistry and many others.
Once students successfully complete their lower secondary school education they are permitted to follow one of three available tracks at the higher secondary school level.  Students may choose only one track.
The first track that is available to students is known as the General Education track, which spans two years and comprises grades 10 and 11.   In addition to the general education track of higher secondary education there are also two types of vocational tracks: Initial Vocational Education, Secondary Vocational Education.

Initial Vocational Education in Kazakhstan is provided by the country’s (initial) training schools and lycees, while Secondary Vocational Education is provided by colleges.


Education in Great Britain is compulsory and free for all children between the ages of 5 and 16. There are many children who attend a nursery school from the age of 3, but it is not compulsory. In nursery schools they learn some elementary things such as numbers, colours, and letters. Apart from that, babies play, have lunch and sleep there.

Compulsory education begins at the age of 5 when children go to primary school. Primary education lasts for 6 years. It is divided into two periods: infant schools (pupils from 5 to 7 years old) and junior schools (pupils from 7 to 11 years old). In infant schools children don’t have real classes. They mostly play and learn through playing. It is the time when children just get acquainted with the classroom, the blackboard, desks and the teacher. But when pupils are 7, real studying begins. Now they have real classes, when they sit at desks, read, write and answer the teacher’s questions.

Compulsory secondary education begins when children are 11 or 12 and lasts for 5 years. Secondary school is traditionally divided into 5 forms.  Children study English, Mathematics, Science, History, Art, Geography, Music, a Foreign language and have lessons of Physical training.

There are 3 types of state secondary schools in Great Britain. They are: comprehensive schools, grammar schools, modern schools.

After five years of secondary education, at the age of 16, pupils take the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) examination. When they are in the third or in the forth form, they begin to choose their exam subjects and prepare for them.

After finishing the fifth form pupils can make their choice: they may either leave school and go to a Further Education College or continue their education in the sixth form. Those who stay at school after GCSE, study for 2 more years for “A’ (Advanced) Level Exams in two or three subjects which is necessary to get a place at one of British universities.

After leaving secondary school young people can apply to a university, a polytechnic or a college of further education.


Tertiary or higher education in Kazakhstan is provided mainly by the country’s universities.  Following the Russian system of tertiary education, universities in the country focus entirely on teaching and do not engage in research (as universities do in other parts of the world).
Students who wish to apply for university admittance must, at minimum, possess a leaving certificate or its recognized equivalent from one of the country’s higher secondary education institutions.  Since 2004, all secondary school graduates have also had to pass a new exam, the Edinoe Nacional’noe Testirovanie(Unified National Testing Exam) and receive the corresponding diploma, the Certificat o Rezul’tatah EHT(replacing the Complex Testing Exam) to enter a university.
As with most modern universities, the higher education institutions in Kazakhstan offer a number of degree options in hundreds of possible majors.  Currently there are four levels of tertiary education in Kazakhstan:
·Bachelor Degree.  The Bachelor degree in Kazakhstan typically spans four years or eight full semesters for full-time students.  These basic higher education degrees provide students with the required fundamentals specific to their chosen field of study.
·Specialist Degree.  The Specialist degree or diploma, which generally spans five years in duration, includes specialized education that is a bit more intensive than the normal Bachelor degree.
·Masters Degree. Scientific-pedagogical education in Kazakhstan can lead to a Master’s degree, which typically spans an additional two years in duration after the Bachelor or Specialist degree.
·Doctoral Degree.  Doctoral degrees, leading to the Doctor of Science or PhD degree, can span anywhere from two too five years after the Master’s degree.
Universities in Kazakhstan are typically headed up by a rector, appointed by the President of the nation, who wields considerable authority over the institution, approving all decisions including those regarding curriculum, personnel, and admission. This chain of command makes the universities in Kazakhstan much more centralized than their Western counterparts.
As of this writing, the top two universities in Kazakhstan are al-Farabi Kazakh National University in Almaty and L. N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University located in Astana. Karaganda State University is also well-regarded.


After finishing secondary school or college you can apply to a university, polytechnic, college of education or you can continue to study in a college of further education.

The academic year in Britain’s universities, Polytechnics, Colleges of education is divided into 3 terms, which usually run from the beginning of October to the middle of December, the middle of January to the end of March, from the middle of April to the end of June or the beginning of July.

There are 46 universities in Britain. The oldest and best-known universities are located in Oxford, Cambridge, London, Leeds, Manchester, Liverpool, Edinburgh, Southampton, Cardiff, Bristol and Birmingham.

Good A-level results in at least 2 subjects are necessary to get a place at a university. However, good exam passes alone are not enough. Universities choose their students after interviews.

English universities greatly differ from each other. They differ in date of foundation, size, history, tradition, general organization, methods of instruction and way of student life.

After three years of study a university graduate will leave with the Degree of Bachelor of Arts, Science, Engineering, Medicine, etc. Some courses, such as languages and medicine, may be one or two years longer. The degrees are awarded at public degree ceremonies. Later he/she may continue to take Master’s Degree and then a Doctor’s Degree.

The 2 intellectual eyes of Britain – Oxford & Cambridge Universities – date from the 12 & 13 centuries. They are known for all over the world and are the oldest and most prestigious universities in Britain. They are often called collectively Oxbridge, but both of them are completely independent.

In the nineteenth and the early part of the twentieth centuries the so-called Redbrick universities were founded. These include London, Manchester, Leeds, Liverpool, Sheffield, and Birmingham.

There’s an interesting form of studies which is called the Open University. It’s intended for people who study in their own free time and who ‘attend’ lectures by watching TV and listening to the radio.

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