Technology 

Technology (“science of craft”, from Greek τέχνη, techne, “art, skill, cunning of hand”; and -λογία, -logia) is the collection of techniquesskillsmethods, and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings.

The simplest form of technology is the development and use of basic tools. The prehistoric discovery of how to control fire and the later Neolithic Revolution increased the available sources of food, and the invention of the wheel helped humans to travel in and control their environment. Developments in historic times, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale.

  1. Main part
    • Cloud technologies

Cloud computing is shared pools of configurable computer system resources and higher-level services that can be rapidly provisioned with minimal management effort, often over the Internet. Cloud computing relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economies of scale, similar to a public utility.

Third-party clouds enable organizations to focus on their core businesses instead of expending resources on computer infrastructure and maintenance. Advocates note that cloud computing allows companies to avoid or minimize up-front IT infrastructure costs. Proponents also claim that cloud computing allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster, with improved manageability and less maintenance, and that it enables IT teams to more rapidly adjust resources to meet fluctuating and unpredictable demand. Cloud providers typically use a “pay-as-you-go” model, which can lead to unexpected operating expenses if administrators are not familiarized with cloud-pricing models.

The availability of high-capacity networks, low-cost computers and storage devices as well as the widespread adoption of hardware virtualization, service-oriented architecture, and autonomic and utility computing has led to growth in cloud computing.

The goal of cloud computing is to allow users to take benefit from all of these technologies, without the need for deep knowledge about or expertise with each one of them. The cloud aims to cut costs, and helps the users focus on their core business instead of being impeded by IT obstacles. The main enabling technology for cloud computing is virtualization. Virtualization software separates a physical computing device into one or more “virtual” devices, each of which can be easily used and managed to perform computing tasks. With operating system–level virtualization essentially creating a scalable system of multiple independent computing devices, idle computing resources can be allocated and used more efficiently. Virtualization provides the agility required to speed up IT operations, and reduces cost by increasing infrastructure utilization. Autonomic computing automates the process through which the user can provision resources on-demand. By minimizing user involvement, automation speeds up the process, reduces labor costs and reduces the possibility of human errors.

2.1.1 History

During the 1960s, the initial concepts of time-sharing became popularized via RJE, this terminology was mostly associated with large vendors such as IBM and DEC. Full-time-sharing solutions were available by the early 1970s on such platforms as Multics, Cambridge CTSS, and the earliest UNIX ports. Yet, the “data center” model where users submitted jobs to operators to run on IBM mainframes was overwhelmingly predominant.

In the 1990s, telecommunications companies, who previously offered primarily dedicated point-to-point data circuits, began offering virtual private network (VPN) services with comparable quality of service, but at a lower cost. By switching traffic as they saw fit to balance server use, they could use overall network bandwidth more effectively. They began to use the cloud symbol to denote the demarcation point between what the provider was responsible for and what users were responsible for. Cloud computing extended this boundary to cover all servers as well as the network infrastructure. As computers became more diffused, scientists and technologists explored ways to make large-scale computing power available to more users through time-sharing. They experimented with algorithms to optimize the infrastructure, platform, and applications to prioritize CPUs and increase efficiency for end users.

  • Since 2000, cloud computing has come into existence.
  • In August 2006, Amazon created subsidiary Amazon Web Services and introduced its Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2).
  • In April 2008, Google released Google App Engine in beta.
  • In early 2008, NASA’s OpenNebula, enhanced in the RESERVOIR European Commission-funded project, became the first open-source software for deploying private and hybrid clouds, and for the federation of clouds.
  • By mid-2008, Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing “to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services, those who use IT services and those who sell them” and observed that “organizations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models” so that the “projected shift to computing … will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and significant reductions in other areas.”
  • In 2008, the U.S. National Science Foundation began the Cluster Exploratory program to fund academic research using Google-IBM cluster technology to analyze massive amounts of data
  • In February 2010, Microsoft released Microsoft Azure, which was announced in October 2008.
  • In July 2010, Rackspace Hosting and NASA jointly launched an open-source cloud-software initiative known as OpenStack. The OpenStack project intended to help organizations offering cloud-computing services running on standard hardware. The early code came from NASA’s Nebula platform as well as from Rackspace’s Cloud Files platform. As an open source offering and along with other open-source solutions such as CloudStack, Ganeti and OpenNebula, it has attracted attention by several key communities. Several studies aim at comparing these open sources offerings based on a set of criteria.
  • On March 1, 2011, IBM announced the IBM SmartCloud framework to support Smarter Planet. Among the various components of the Smarter Computing foundation, cloud computing is a critical part. On June 7, 2012, Oracle announced the Oracle Cloud. This cloud offering is poised to be the first to provide users with access to an integrated set of IT solutions, including the Applications (SaaS), Platform (PaaS), and Infrastructure (IaaS) layers.
  • In May 2012, Google Compute Engine was released in preview, before being rolled out into General Availability in December 2013.

2.1.2 Advantages of cloud technologies

  • Agility for organizations may be improved, as cloud computing may increase users’ flexibility with re-provisioning, adding, or expanding technological infrastructure resources.
  • Cost reductions are claimed by cloud providers. A public-cloud delivery model converts capital expendituresto operational expenditure. This purportedly lowers barriers to entry, as infrastructure is typically provided by a third party and need not be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. Pricing on a utility computing basis is “fine-grained”, with usage-based billing options. As well, less in-house IT skills are required for implementation of projects that use cloud computing. The e-FISCAL project’s state-of-the-art repository contains several articles looking into cost aspects in more detail, most of them concluding that costs savings depend on the type of activities supported and the type of infrastructure available in-house.
  • Device and location independenceenable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they use (e.g., PC, mobile phone). As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet, users can connect to it from anywhere.
  • Maintenanceof cloud computing applications is easier, because they do not need to be installed on each user’s computer and can be accessed from different places (e.g., different work locations, while travelling, etc.).
  • Multitenancyenables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for:
  1. Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate, electricity, etc.)
  2. Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer and pay for the resources and equipment to meet their highest possible load-levels)
  3. Utilisation and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilised.
  • Performanceis monitored by IT experts from the service provider, and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface.
  • Productivitymay be increased when multiple users can work on the same data simultaneously, rather than waiting for it to be saved and emailed. Time may be saved as information does not need to be re-entered when fields are matched, nor do users need to install application software upgrades to their computer.
  • Reliability improves with the use of multiple redundant sites, which makes well-designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery.
  • Scalability and elasticityvia dynamic (“on-demand”) provisioning of resources on a fine-grained, self-service basis in near real-time (Note, the VM startup time varies by VM type, location, OS and cloud providers), without users having to engineer for peak loads. This gives the ability to scale up when the usage need increases or down if resources are not being used.
  • Securitycan improve due to centralization of data, increased security-focused resources, etc., but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data, and the lack of security for stored kernels. Security is often as good as or better than other traditional systems, in part because service providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford to tackle or which they lack the technical skills to address. However, the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area or over a greater number of devices, as well as in multi-tenant systems shared by unrelated users. In addition, user access to security audit logs may be difficult or impossible. Private cloud installations are in part motivated by users desire to retain control over the infrastructure and avoid losing control of information security.

Disadvantages of cloud technologies

  • Possible downtime without internet connection:Cloud computing is totally dependent on internet connection. When the internet connection or network is down, cloud services are down as well. If the connection runs slow, then your services will also run slow and the output of your enterprise gets affected. Your entire system or operations may become idle if you do not have the necessary backup or alternative internet connection. Even if cloud computing providers take precautions to ensure that the network has a great uptime, the risk always remains. While choosing a Cloud Computing service provider ensure they are reputed, dependable, and proven in their services. Read their reviews and try them out on a trial basis before you are comfortable with their services and support.
  • Security and privacy issues: You should use or store only that data that you are comfortable having on the Internet. Although security in the cloud is generally good and reliable, established cloud computing vendors ensure they have the latest, most sophisticated data security systems as data security is always a big concern for businesses. But there are still serious security concerns that hackers can attack and breach the system. As the servers are interconnected in the cloud, a hacker can breach one system and then make way into other linked systems.Privacy is another area of concern. If a user can log in from any location to access data and applications, it’s possible the user’s privacy could be compromised. . One way Cloud computing companies protect their clients’ privacy is to use authentication techniques such as user names and passwords. They also use an authorization format, where  each user can access only the data and applications relevant to his or her job.
  • Cost:Analyzing cost and savings before implementing Cloud computing can be a tricky part. For a small business enterprise a cloud computing application may appear to be a lot cheaper than a particular software solution installed and run in-house. On the other hand, it may appear expensive to set up cloud computing on a small-scale basis.  You need to check if the cloud application has all the features that you intended to have in the original software and if not, are the missing features important to you. Also if you have complex or industry-specific information technology needs, you may be better off with custom-designed software as general cloud based application software may not suffice your needs. It is also important to analyze the plan and fee structure of the cloud computing services you are using. Many cloud computer vendors present themselves as utility-based providers, claiming that you’re charged only for what you use, but that may not be entirely true. Also initially when a business first starts using the cloud computing services, it may appear that there are cost savings. For example, SaaS (Software as a Service) applications will have lower total cost of ownership for the first two years because SaaS applications do not require large capital investment for licenses or for infrastructure support.  But after the initial two years, the on-premise option can be a better cost saving option from an accounting perspective as the capital assets would depreciate. So you need to look closely at the pricing plans and details for each application to be sure that you’re saving money and have to try various offerings until you find the right one.
  • No Hard Drive:Some customers may find it cheaper to do away with hard drives as that can reduce costs. But those who use programs that need an attached hard drive, using cloud computing may be quite inconvenient.
  • Data Ownership:Data ownership can be a major hurdle in cloud computing, especially if you have a lot of data to handle. As of yet there is no clarity about the ownership of data. There may not be an exact answer to a basic question of who owns the data maintained by a cloud storage service, whether it is the uploader or the storage provider of data. As a result, cloud providers create their own terms and conditions, which at times may seem arbitrary. Therefore, reading and understanding the terms and conditions are necessary when you deal with cloud computing and cloud hosting. Also be aware that there may be certain restrictions on uploading certain type of data.
  • Inflexibility:While choosing a cloud computing vendor, be careful that the terms and conditions don’t lock you into using their proprietary applications or formats. There may be conditions, such that you cannot insert a document created in another application, which may be detrimental to your business. Also ensure that you can add and subtract cloud computing users as necessary as your business grows or contracts.
  • Lack of support:Compared with most packaged or custom-built software, cloud-based services always do not have the best customer care support system. It may be difficult to get them on the phone or by e-mail, and they often don’t provide illustrated user manuals. Instead, they ask their customers to rely on FAQ pages and online community support, which may not be always very translucent.
  • Integrating  Peripherals and Latency:You may face difficulties while connecting wireless devices, especially when it comes to personal devices such as printers to the cloud network. There may be issues of software incompatibilities as most devices are still designed to connect specifically to a PC. There may be issues of latency or time lag while connecting your system to the remote cloud servers. This happens if the cloud servers are handling too much traffic. So you need to ensure the provider has the right hardware or can update and increase the server capabilities as per requirement.

2.1.3 Cloud computing deployment models

Cloud computing services can be private, public or hybrid.

Private cloud services are delivered from a business’s data center to internal users. This model offers the versatility and convenience of the cloud, while preserving the management, control and security common to local data centers. Internal users may or may not be billed for services through IT chargeback.

Common private cloud technologies and vendors include VMware and OpenStack.

In the public cloud model, a third-party cloud service provider delivers the cloud service over the internet. Public cloud services are sold on demand, typically by the minute or hour, though long-term commitments are available for many services. Customers only pay for the CPU cycles, storage or bandwidth they consume.

Leading public cloud service providers include Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft Azure, IBM and Google Cloud Platform.

A hybrid cloud is a combination of public cloud services and an on-premises private cloud, with orchestration and automation between the two. Companies can run mission-critical workloads or sensitive applications on the private cloud and use the public cloud to handle workload bursts or spikes in demand.

The goal of a hybrid cloud is to create a unified, automated, scalable environment that takes advantage of all that a public cloud infrastructure can provide, while still maintaining control over mission-critical data.

In addition, organizations are increasingly embracing a multicloud model, or the use of multiple infrastructure-as-a-service providers. This enables applications to migrate between different cloud providers or to even operate concurrently across two or more cloud providers.

Organizations adopt multicloud for various reasons. For example, they could do so to minimize the risk of a cloud service outage or to take advantage of more competitive pricing from a particular provider.

Multicloud implementation and application development can be a challenge because of the differences between cloud providers’ services and application program interfaces (APIs). Multicloud deployments should become easier, however, as providers’ services and APIs converge and become more homogeneous through industry initiatives such as the Open Cloud Computing Interface.

Types of cloud computing services

Although cloud computing has changed over time, it has been divided into three broad service categories: infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS) and software as a service (SaaS).

IaaS providers, such as AWS, supply a virtual server instance and storage, as well as APIs that enable users to migrate workloads to a VM. Users have an allocated storage capacity and can start, stop, access and configure the VM and storage as desired. IaaS providers offer small, medium, large, extra-large and memory- or compute-optimized instances, in addition to customized instances, for various workload needs.

In the PaaS model, cloud providers host development tools on their infrastructures. Users access these tools over the internet using APIs, web portals or gateway software. PaaS is used for general software development, and many PaaS providers host the software after it’s developed. Common PaaS providers include Salesforce’s Force.com, AWS Elastic Beanstalk and Google App Engine.

SaaS is a distribution model that delivers software applications over the internet; these applications are often called web services. Users can access SaaS applications and services from any location using a computer or mobile device that has internet access. One common example of a SaaS application is Microsoft Office 365 for productivity and email services.

 

Serverless computing

Serverless computing is a cloud computing code execution model in which the cloud provider fully manages starting and stopping virtual machines as necessary to serve requests, and requests are billed by an abstract measure of the resources required to satisfy the request, rather than per virtual machine, per hour. Despite the name, it does not actually involve running code without servers. Serverless computing is so named because the business or person that owns the system does not have to purchase, rent or provision servers or virtual machines for the back-end code to run on.

Function as a service (FaaS)

Function as a service (FaaS) is a service-hosted remote procedure call that leverages serverless computing to enable the deployment of individual functions in the cloud that run in response to events. FaaS is included under the broader term serverless computing, but the terms may also be used interchangeably.

  • Smart technologies

Stands for”Self-Monitoring Analysis And Reporting Technology.” It is used to protect and prevent errors in hard drives. The SMART technology basically monitors and analyzes hard drives (hence the name), then checks the health of your hard drive and lets you know if there are any problems. The main purpose of SMART is to keep your hard drive running smoothly and prevent it from crashing.

  • History

Smart Technologies introduced the first Smart Board interactive whiteboard in 1991. It was the first interactive whiteboard to provide touch control of computer applications and annotation over standard Microsoft Windows applications. In 2003, Smart developed and later patented  DViT (Digital Vision Touch) technology. This camera-based touch technology for interactive whiteboards and interactive displays uses digital cameras and proprietary software and firmware to detect finger or pen contact with the screen. That contact is then interpreted as finger or pen activity. As of fiscal year end 2010, Smart Technologies holds more than 150 issued patents with more than 600 patents pending. In 2011, Smart Technologies celebrated the 20th anniversary of the Smart Board interactive whiteboard, which coincided with the installation of the two millionth interactive whiteboard. As of October 2011, Smart employs more than 1,700 people. Smart products are sold through dealers across North America and through distributors in countries around the world. Smart Technologies is a publicly traded company headquartered in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. In 1992, Smart formed a strategic alliance with Intel Corparation which resulted in joint product development and marketing efforts and Intel’s ongoing equity ownership in Smart.

Smart home – Home automation is the residential extension of building automation and involves the control and automation of lighting, heating, ventilation, air conditioning, appliances, and security. Modern systems generally consist of switches and sensors connected to a central hub sometimes called a “gateway” from which the system is controlled with a user interface that is interacted either with a wall-mounted terminal, mobile phone software, tablet computer or a web interface.

The first Smart TV related patent was filed in 1994, though it’s only in the last 5 years. Smart TV refers to a trend of integrating Internet-connected technologies into a TV set; a convergence of computer-like features. Smart TVs may have one or more of the following features: Video Playback Via DLNA/USB. Apps & Games;  Gesture& Voice Control; Social Networking; Web Browsing; Smartphone Connectivity;

Smart Hub provides utility and telecommunications customers account management at their fingertips. Customers can view their usage and billing, manage payments, notify customer service of account and service issues and receive special messaging from their local utility or telecommunications company. Additional Features: Bill & Pay My Usage Contact Us News Service Status Maps

  • The advantages of smart technology

1. Smart Technology Helps Conserve Energy.

Diminishing fuel sources combined with rising energy costs have made energy conservation a top priority for some. Smart technology helps by automating home energy usage. Many of us forget to switch off the lights or turn off the thermostat before we leave home, resulting in a huge waste of energy and money, both of which we can ill afford. In homes that use smart technology, light usage is automatically regulated, heating and cooling equipment is monitored and appliances are shut off if not in use. Homeowners have the added benefit of being able to turn appliances on or off while they are away from home. This not only saves money, but also helps protect the environment.

2. Offers Convenience At Various Levels.

Smart technology can make it possible for you to accomplish several tasks with just a few clicks, often without the need to even move. You can adjust the temperature or dim the lighting in the room, control the music levels, lock all the doors and close the garage with just a few clicks. Some of the more advanced systems are capable of ‘sensing’ your preferences by reading through the light, noise and temperature settings and will adjust automatically so even those few clicks are redundant. That takes convenience to a whole new level.

3. Offers An Unprecedented Level Of Security.

Smart technology is far more effective at preventing intrusions as compared to manually operated security systems. Smart home security systems warn homeowners of potential threats inside the home or on their property. Some even text or phone homeowners to alert them about break-ins while the police or external security company are also being informed.

4. Offers Peace of Mind to Vulnerable people and their caregivers.

From medication monitoring, tracking calorie intake to calling the emergency services in times of distress, smart technology helps vulnerable people in numerous ways. Being able to control their settings helps them live more independent lives while the many monitoring functionalities help caregivers have more time for their own lives while simultaneously looking after their loved ones.

5. Saves money.

Everyone loves to save a few quid. With the technology available to water your houseplants, feed your pets and much more, you no longer have to pay somebody to do these tasks for you every time you are away. Add this to the energy adjusting features and those savings will add up, quickly returning your original investment and making life much easier.

The following factors are fostering the adoption of mobile cloud computing:

  • Trends and demands: customers expect the convenience of using companies’ websites or application from anywhere and at anytime. Mobile devices can provide this convenience. Enterprise users require always-on access to business applications and collaborative services so that they can increase their productivity from anywhere, even when they are on the commute.
  • Improved and increased broadband coverage: 3G and 4G along with WiFi, femto-cells, fixed wireless and so on are providing better connectivity for mobile devices.
  • Enabling technologies: HTML5, CSS3, hypervisor for mobile devices, cloudlets and Web 4.0 will drive adoption of mobile cloud computing.
    • Mobile technologies

Mobile technology is the technology used for cellular communication. Mobile code-division multiple access (CDMA) technology has evolved rapidly over the past few years. Since the start of this millennium, a standard mobile device has gone from being no more than a simple two-way pager to being a mobile phone, GPS navigation device, an embedded web browser and instant messaging client, and a handheld gaming console. Many experts believe that the future of computer technology rests in mobile computing with wireless networking. Mobile computing by way of tablet computers are becoming more popular. Tablets are available on the 3G and 4G networks.

Mobile technology is a form of technology that is mostly used in cellular communication and other related aspects. It uses a form of platform where by many transmitters have the ability to send data at the same time on a single channel. This platform is called Code-division multiple access (CDMA). This platform allows many users to make use of single frequencies because it restricts the likelihood of interference of frequencies from two or more sources. This channel has evolved over the years. The mobile technology is rapidly evolving; over the years, its uses are becoming diverse and is gradually replacing some similar sources in the market that are also used for communication e.g. post office and land lines. The mobile technology has improved from a simple device used for phone call and messaging into a multi-tasking device used for GPS navigation, internet browsing, gaming, instant messaging tool etc. Professionals argue with the trend that the future of computer technology is rest on wireless networking and mobile computing. Mobile technology through tablet and portable computers are becoming more and more popular.

Mobile technology was a mystery two decades ago but now, it has become something of necessity to both the rural and the urban areas. The mobile technology started as a remarkable achievement in the world of technology but now, it is transforming into user comfort technology due to its present diverse functionality. When the mobile was first introduced, it used to be basically for SMS, Calls and games. But it has presently transformed into a digital world and has made life and business much easier; marketers now have the ability to sell their products with ease through mobiles technology. The mobile has made it possible for users to transfer files and other files through Bluetooth and wifi. The mobile is also equipped with internet connectivity, making it easy for the user to gain information and also to download files from the internet. Video call conferencing is another achievement that has come to reality through mobile technology. Business men and clients now have the channel to communicate even without seeing in person. With the use of mobile technology, it is now easy to catch up with every form of entertainment from the comfort of your home. It has also made it possible for one to easily locate places on the globe using the Global positioning system (GPS). Especially in the business world, the importance of mobile technology cannot be overemphasized; bankers depend solely on mobile technology on managing finances and stocks. Many business firms uses the mobile technology to increase their earnings through providing customers easiness to patronize their product through apps and websites. For example, the Cinema may create an app for ticket booking; railway travel tickets can be purchased from the internet without having to queue up to purchase it. The evolvement of mobile technology has made our life easier and also saves us time and resources.

The diversity of mobile technology is due to the fact that that many mobile operating systems are available for smart phones all of which have their own unique characteristics. Some of these operating systems are: the Android, blackberry, webos, ios, symbian windows and bada mobile some of which will be briefly discussed: The android is an operating system that is developed by google. The operating system is designed basically for the touch screen mobile devices and it is based on a simple manipulation. It uses simple touch gestures that relates to the real world situation. The Android is the first and only open source operating system; that means it has the ability to be ported to any cell phone. The blackberry is an operating system developed by the Blackberry limited. The operating system was developed mainly for Blackberry smart phones. This system is most specialized for multitasking and also aids the use of some specific inputs for the supports of some of its smart phones such as the trackwheel, trackball, trackball, trackpad and touchscreen. The IOS is a mobile operating system that is made and developed by Apple. The system was developed for the use of the Apple hardware only such as Iphone, Ipad and Ipod Touch.

Since 2008 the operating system customized their platforms, allowing the user to download any app he wishes to download like the gaming app, the utility apps, the GPS and other tools. Any user that have the knowledge to create an app and also wishes to create one can legally do so. The WebOS basically has the ability to support internet programming languages some of which are HTML, JavaScript, and CSS.
The internet is now equipped with a 4G network. This network enables a high speed data transmission in the channels, making surfing the internet to be easier. In the future, smart phones will be aware of their environment, they are going to be able to utilize the availability of physical inbuilt sensors and the ease with which data are exchanged. One of the way to achieve these trend is that the mobile phones will begin to keep track of the user’s personal data, but also, they will be able to predict almost correctly the user intentions on what he wants to use or the information he is interested in getting. This will be accomplished by keeping track of the user earlier tasks. In the next generation of mobile technology, smart phones will be equipped with X-Ray tool that will be able to detect detail information about the location the phone is pointing to at that particular time. Various companies are presently developing apps that will be able to accurately sense the exact location or present position of the phone or the user. Along with the future of mobile technology comes another device called Omnitouch this is a device that makes it possible for application to be used on the hand, arm, desk, wall and every other plain surface. The device has a sensor touch interface which makes it possible for the user to access functions through the use of the finger touch.
Since the arrival of the mobile, it has helped humans in many ways; some of which are: mobile phones are very important in case of an emergency they safe lives in cases of accidents and other related issues. One of the most important use of smart phones is that they ensure safety. Families can easily communicate with each other while away. To cap it up, mobile technology is here to stay and holds a lot more features in the future to meet even the most of our basic needs and to make life a lot easier.

  • The history of mobile technology: Early beginnings

Right after Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876, inventors began working on a mobile version. As Motherboard notes, Bell himself tried his hand at it in 1880 with the photo phone, a telephone that could transmit speech using light. A short while later, in 1908, a Kentucky-based farmer and self-taught electrician named Nathan Stubblefield patented the design of a mobile phone that was intended to facilitate communications among boats, trains and way stations. Although it didn’t catch on at the time, people never gave up their fascination with the idea of communicating while in transit .Radiophones were in use on ships in the 1920s, allowing passengers to keep in contact with their friends and loved ones while traveling in the age before air travel. In 1924, wireless phones were tested on trains shuttling between Berlin and Hamburg. World War II saw an increase in the use of radio-based mobile telephony, enabling military forces in disparate battle zones to communicate with one another. Mobile phones for vehicles were another hot commodity early on, finding limited adoption in Europe and the United States.

In the 1940s, AT&T and Bell Labs offered a very limited mobile telephone serviceto their customers in the St. Louis, Missouri, area for a time, although it didn’t have the coverage or the number of available channels necessary to be truly viable then. Equipment was bulky, too, particularly for intrepid midcentury users wishing to make mobile calls from their automobiles. But engineers kept working on the technology, refining it over time in the hopes that one day it would make their vision of a mobile world a reality.

  • Advantages of mobile technology

Benefits of using mobile technology for business can manifest in:

  • Higher efficiency and productivity of staff
  • The quality and flexibility of service you offer your customers
  • The ability to accept payments wirelessly
  • Increased ability to communicate in and out of the workplace
  • Greater access to modern apps and services
  • Improvednetworkingcapabilities

Mobile devices can link you directly into the office network while working off-site. Forexample, youcouldremotely:

  • set up a new customer’s account
  • accessexistingcustomerrecords
  • checkpricesandstockavailability
  • placeanorderonline

Disadvantages of mobile technology

Main disadvantages that come with the use of mobile technology in business include:

  • Costs– new technologies and devices are often costly to purchase and require ongoing maintenance and upkeep.
  • Workplace distractions– as the range of technologies and devices increases, so does the potential for them to disrupt productivity and workflow in the business.
  • Additional training needs– staff may need instructions and training on how to use new technology.
  • Increased IT security needs– portable devices are vulnerable to security risks, especially if they contain sensitive or critical business data.
    • Operating systems

Many types of mobile operating systems (OS) are available for smartphones, including AndroidBlackBerry OSwebOSiOSSymbianWindows Mobile Professional (touch screen), Windows Mobile Standard (non-touch screen), and Bada. The most popular are the Apple iPhone, and the newest: Android. Android, a mobile OS developed by Google, is the first completely open-source mobile OS, meaning that it is free to any cell phone mobile network.

Since 2008 customizable OSs allow the user to download apps like games, GPS, utilities, and other tools. Users can also create their own apps and publish them, e.g. to Apple’s App Store. The Palm Pre using webOS has functionality over the Internet and can support Internet-based programming languages such as Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), HTML, and JavaScript. The Research In Motion (RIM) BlackBerry is a smartphone with a multimedia player and third-party software installation. The Windows Mobile Professional Smartphones (Pocket PC or Windows Mobile PDA) are like personal digital assistants (PDA) and have touchscreen abilities. The Windows Mobile Standard does not have a touch screen but uses a trackballtouchpad, or rockers.

Channel hogging and file sharing

There will be a hit to file sharing, the normal web surfer would want to look at a new web page every minute or so at 100 kbs a page loads quickly. Because of the changes to the security of wireless networks users will be unable to do huge file transfers because service providers want to reduce channel use. AT&T claimed that they would ban any of their users that they caught using peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing applications on their 3G network. It then became apparent that it would keep any of their users from using their iTunes programs. The users would then be forced to find a Wi-Fi hotspot to be able to download files. The limits of wireless networking will not be cured by 4G, as there are too many fundamental differences between wireless networking and other means of Internet access. If wireless vendors do not realize these differences and bandwidth limits, future wireless customers will find themselves disappointed and the market may suffer setbacks. 

  • Impacts on the modern family

Increasing mobile technology use has changed how the modern family interacts with one another through technology. With the rise of mobile devices, families are becoming increasingly “on-the-move”, and spend less time in physical contact with one another. However, this trend does not mean that families are no longer interacting with each other, but rather have evolved into a more digitized variant. A study has shown that the modern family actually learns better with usage of mobile media, and children are more willing to cooperate with their parents via a digital medium than a more direct approach. For example, family members can share information from articles or online videos via mobile devices and thus stay connected with one another during a busy day.

This trend is not without controversy, however. Many parents of elementary school-age children express concern and sometimes disapproval of heavy mobile technology use.Parents may feel that excessive usage of such technologies distracts children from “un-plugged” bonding experiences, and many express safety concerns about children using mobile media. While parents may have many concerns are, they are not necessarily anti-technology. In fact, many parents express approval of mobile technology usage if their children can learn something from the session. for example, through art or music tutorials on YouTube.

  • Future of smartphones

The next generation of smartphones will be context-aware, taking advantage of the growing availability of embedded physical sensors and data exchange abilities. One of the main features applying to this is that phones will start keeping track of users’ personal data, and adapt to anticipate the information will need. All-new applications will come out with the new phones, one of which is an X-ray device that reveals information about any location at which the phone is pointed. Companies are developing software to take advantage of more accurate location-sensing data. This has been described as making the phone a virtual mouse able to click the real world. An example would be pointing the phone’s camera at a building while having the live feed open, and the phone will show text with the image of the building, and save its location for use in the future.

Omnitouch is a device via which apps can be viewed and used on a hand, arm, wall, desk, or any other everyday surface. The device uses a sensor touch interface, which enables the user to access all the functions through the use of the touch of a finger. It was developed at Carnegie Mellon University. This device uses a projector and camera worn on the user’s shoulder, with no controls other than the user’s fingers. 

  1. Conclusion

Cloud Computing is an emerging technology supporting business and satisfies customer needs. Users run applications in shared environment. When a user uses any application on the Cloud, just logs in, customizes it, and starts using it. That’s the power of Cloud Computing. In Mobile Cloud Computing both the data storage and the data processing happen outside of the mobile device i.e. when we combined concept of Cloud Computing in mobile environment. In MCC scenario all the computing power and data storage move into the mobile cloud. MCC will not provide benefits only to the smart phone users but will help a broader range of mobile subscriber. It is estimated that by the end of 2014 the number of mobile cloud users will be over a billion. Smartphone applications will be transferred from the device to the cloud. Cloud Computing offers endless possibilities, but also faces great challenges. Key challenge for Cloud Computing is the availability of the network because the services will be provided through Internet.

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