) Definitoins of “Conflict”:
– There was a lot of conflict between him and his father.
Researchers have allocated general characteristics of course of the interpersonal conflicts, but in different collectives there are features. The interpersonal conflicts belong to the most widespread conflicts in various social systems. According to many experts, distribution of the interpersonal conflicts on spheres of social interaction the following:
- The professional sphere – 88%.
- The household sphere – 9%.
- Diffusion groups – 3%.
2) First researches of the concept “conflict”.
The first in domestic psychology attempts to give definitions to the conflict have been made by A. R. Luriya in 1930; A.R. Luriya understood the conflict as a situation when in behavior of the individual two strong, but opposite directed tendencies face. According to V. S. Merlin “the psychological conflict” represents “result of sharp dissatisfaction of deep and actual motives and the relations of the personality”. Now psychological researches of the interpersonal conflicts are very widespread. (Antsupov A.Ya., Grishina N. V., Krogius N. V., Moiseyev D.P., Shipilov A.N. and many others).
- Main body.
- Main components of structure of a conflict:
- a conflict situation (the situation which is objectively containing obvious prerequisites for the conflict, provoking hostile actions, the conflict);
- a conflict subject (that because of what arises the conflict);
- object (concrete reason, motivation, driving force of the conflict);
- motives (the motives to the introduction in the conflict connected with satisfaction requirements);
- information model of a conflict situation (subjective representation in mentality of people of object, the phenomenon or process of a material world, on the basis of information which the subject has);
- strategy (orientation of the personality in relation to the conflict) and tactics (the choice of behavior in the conflict);
- participants of the conflict: opponents (persons) or contradictory groups (small and big).
- Reasons of the conflicts:
Among the reasons of the conflicts it is necessary to mention fight for self-realization in professional activity. Such conflicts, according to Antsupov A.Ya. and Moiseyeva D.P., make about a half of all conflicts in the organizations. To them the conflicts connected with innovations (the conflict “conservative innovator”), and also psychological barriers in innovative activity are close.
A basic activator of activity of the opponent in the conflict are his requirements. Needs for safety, recognition, identity, social accessory are, etc. inherent in both the certain individual, and social groups. According to D. Burton, only those organizational efforts which completely satisfy the basic human wants can lead to original completion of the conflict.
- Dynamics of the conflicts.
There are various descriptions of dynamics of the conflicts. According to the most widespread description, any conflict consists of three phases or the periods:
The I phase – incubatory (open);
The II phase – an open antagonism and collision of the parties;
The III phase – post-conflict (after permission or overcoming of the conflict).
- Interpersonal conflicts (features and groups).
The interpersonal conflicts are situations of opposition, disagreements, collisions between people.
The interpersonal conflicts have the features:
- the antagonism of people occurs directly, here and now, on the basis of collisions of their personal motives and/or judgments; in such conflicts rivals face;
- manifestations of abilities, intelligence, will and other individual and psychological features of subjects of conflict interaction are peculiar “ground” of check and manifestation of characters, temperaments;
- differ in high emotionality and coverage of all parties of the relations between the clashing subjects;
- infringe on interests not only clashing, but also that with whom they are directly connected by the either the office, or interpersonal relations.
The reasons of the interpersonal conflicts are various, but it is possible to allocate two main groups:
- The first group – the organizational and technical reasons: distribution of resources, unsatisfactory communications, distinctions for, etc. These reasons are shown in the course of administrative decisions or in the course of the organization of activity of personnel, i.e. disappear in activity of the head.
- The second group – the psychological and social and psychological reasons: individual and psychological features of employees, the social and psychological phenomena in collective. Manifestation of these reasons is connected with miscalculations in selection and arrangement of personnel, with unsatisfactory moral and psychological climate in labor collective.
5) The conflicts in work on the example of medical collective.
Work is a system of a certain relationship of the subject of activity with society in the sphere of relations of production.
Research of the interpersonal conflicts in medical labor collective is actual. The field of activity in the sphere “the person – the person” places great demands on psychological characteristics of the identity of the health worker and can’t but be reflected in course of the interpersonal conflicts in the medical organization. Topical issue is communication of the medic and patient, and medics among themselves in the course of work. On a condition of the patient huge impact is exerted by the attitude of the medic towards him. And if the patient is happy, for example, with conversation with the doctor who has attentively listened to him, in a quiet situation and has given to him the relevant advice, then it is already the first step to recovery. It is possible to speak about the importance for effective and frictionless interaction in medical collective.
In medical labor collective there are specific production and interpersonal relations. In the system of professional activity and business relationship developing in any labor medical collective it is necessary to distinguish two aspects connected among themselves: psychological and moral. These aspects in the sphere of medical activity developed centuries, were formed by professional societies, groups, collectives and certain scientists, formulated in the form of oaths, solemn promises, medical codes, etc.
The moral aspect is the most important in the sphere of the relations between health workers in their professional activity that is shown in valuable and approximate unity, manifestation of unity, mutual insistence, keenness, mutual aid as life and health of patients depends on it. In medical labor collective we consider only the role conflicts. The conflicts, distinctions of the points of view of the medic and the patient, and also medics can be caused by their social roles.
- Production relationship according to A. N. Zankovsky.
Production relationship according to A.N. Zankovsky, it is possible to consider in three directions: “down”, “across” and “on diagonal”:
– down are a relationship of heads and subordinates. They look as interaction of heads, chiefs, seniors with the corresponding subordinates it persons;
– across are a relationship of employees among themselves, different in official capacity, but not subordinated each other;
– on diagonal – it relationship between heads of one production office with ordinary employees of another.
- b) Techniques of the conflicts.
Behavior assessment technique in K. Thomas’s conflict. The technique allows to reveal the most preferred forms of social behavior of the individual in a conflict situation, and also to define tendencies of his relationship in difficult conditions.
Technique of the interpersonal relations of T. Leary. The technique is intended for research of representations of the subject about itself and ideal “I”, and also for studying of relationship in small groups. With her help the prevailing type of the attitudes towards people in a self-assessment and a mutually assessment comes to light.
Technique of an assessment of the psychological atmosphere in collective A.F.Fidlera. The technique is used for an assessment of the psychological atmosphere in collective. The method of semantic differential is the cornerstone. On the basis of individual profiles the average profile which characterizes the psychological atmosphere in collective is created.
Technique of diagnostics of degree of satisfaction of basic needs. The technique is developed by V. V. Skvortsov and allows to reveal basic requirements – motivators of the personality and group: material requirements, needs for safety, social requirements, needs for recognition, need for self-expression.
- Researches and results of the techniques.
30 people, from them 20 women and 10 men have taken part in research. Age of examinees of 25 – 47 years.
By results of a technique it is possible to tell that in general, the psychological atmosphere in group of employees favorable. Most of all in collective the consent is expressed. Style of interaction – cooperation dominates (according to K. Thomas). It can speak specifics of work in medical institution. Also employees estimate the collective as successful, ready to cooperation and mutual support. Below everything examinees estimate warmth and satisfaction with work in collective. That is, in medical collective the emotional relations are estimated below, than behavioural and cognitive. It can be connected about a dissatisfaction or partial satisfaction of such requirements as needs for safety, social requirements, needs for recognition and self-expression at most of members of collective.
- Discussion of the analysis of approaches to concept of the conflict.
The analysis of various approaches to concept of the conflict allows to tell that studying of this phenomenon, his functions and features of his realization in collective is very actual. At the present stage of development of psychological science there is no standard definition of concept of the conflict and the leading approach to his studying.
There is a set of the works devoted to studying of various aspects of the conflict. The general for all is that most of authors recognize the conflict as a certain counteraction, a contradiction which takes the form of disagreements if it is about interaction of people in collective, society. Also most of authors are similar that the conflict is a necessary condition of development of collective and along with negative functions he carries out also positive functions. Most of authors consider, without the conflict development of group, collective, organization, society is impossible.
As it isn’t always possible to prevent the conflicts, the question of their regulation is important. Therefore the problem of increase of level of a konfliktoustoychivost, prevention and conflict prevention is important. In medical collective the problem of the conflicts is especially important as relationship of workers influences quality of the performed work, and it is life and human health.
The interpersonal conflicts in medical collective are caused individually – psychological features of the identity of members of collective and character of the interpersonal relations in collective. Than less imperious, prepotent persons, especially constructive strategy are chosen by workers at emergence of the conflicts and the psychological atmosphere in labor collective is better.
In the medical organization the conflicts need regulation. The most optimum moment of regulation is not to allow to develop to the conflict, that is to expect him and to take measures for his elimination.
The basic principles on resolution of conflicts in medical labor collective are presented in the Appendix 1.
Appendix 1. Principles of prevention and prevention of the conflicts in the organization
The first principle defines need to resolve the conflict taking into account essence and the maintenance of the available contradiction. In this case it is necessary: to reveal really operating contradiction, to disclose his psychological content; to distinguish the true cause of conflict from declared, to understand motives of concealment of the true reason, degree of sensibleness of such actions; to define a business basis of the conflict.
The second principle assumes resolution of conflict taking into account the true purposes of its participants. In this case it is extremely important to define quickly the purposes of conflicting parties, to draw a clear boundary between features of interpersonal and business interaction. If the true purposes disappear, but are dominating, then it is necessary to understand their intrinsic characteristics. The special attention should be paid to those opponents at whom the purposes of an antagonism have negative (mercenary, unethical) character.
The third principle provides need of resolution of conflict taking into account individual the ilipsikhologicheskikh of features of its participants. This principle is one of the most important. He proclaims the importance of system of the internal conditions of opponents which are the regulator of their behavior and the relations. The support on this principle is especially important in case of extramental motives of a conflictness and presence of uncontrollable aktsentuation at opponents. The knowledge of these internal conditions allows to define precisely a type of influence, to choose a right tone in communication with opponents, especially in the analysis of the causes of conflict.
The principle fourth, according to it it is necessary to carry out resolution of conflict taking into account emotional conditions of opponents. This principle is development and a specification previous.
The principle fifth, it provides resolution of conflict taking into account its dynamics. The conflict develops on certain stages or phases. Naturally, typical conditions, tactics and strategy of an antagonism are characteristic of each of them.
6)Methods of resolution of conflict.
The most effective in overcoming of the conflicts is their forecasting and prevention.
Forecasting of the conflicts – consists in the reasonable assumption of their possible future emergence or development. Signs of social tension can be revealed by method of usual supervision. The next ways of forecasting of the “ripening” conflict are possible: spontaneous mini-meetings (conversation of several people); increase in number of absence from work; increase in number of the local conflicts; work decline in production; the raised emotional and psychological background; mass dismissal at own will; to distribution of rumors; spontaneous meetings and strikes; growth of emotional intensity.
Identification of sources of social tension and forecasting of the conflict at an early stage of his development considerably reduces expenses and reduces a possibility of negative consequences. An important way of management of the conflicts is their prevention.
Prevention of the conflicts consists in such organization of activity of subjects of social interaction which excludes or minimizes probability of emergence of the conflicts between them. Prevention of the conflicts is their prevention in the broadest sense. It is much easier to prevent the conflicts, than to structurally allow them. Prevention of the conflicts isn’t less important, than ability is constructive them to resolve. She demands less expenses of forces, means and time.
Objective and organizational and administrative conditions which promote prevention of the destructive conflicts:
- Creating favorable conditions for activity of workers in the organization (material security of a family, working condition of family members and training of children; health of the person; the relation in a family).
- Equitable and public distribution of material benefits in collective, the organization.
- Development of legal and other standard procedures of permission of typical preconflict situations (humiliation chief of dignity of the subordinate; determination of the sizes of a salary and bonus payments; appointment to vacant post in the presence of several applicants; dismissal of employees).
- The calming material environment surrounding the person: convenient planning of workers and premises, illumination, existence of houseplants, aquariums, the equipment of rooms of psychological unloading, lack of the irritating noise.
- Use of various forms of encouragement, both material, and moral, especially in a public form.
For the benefit of the prevention of emergence of the conflicts it is necessary to consider that social interaction has consistent character when it is balanced. There are five main balances which conscious or irresponsible violation can lead to the conflicts:
Maintenance during interaction of balance of roles. Each of partners can play in relation to another roles senior, equal or younger according to the psychological status. Psychologically the most comfortable role of the person quite often is the role of the senior. But this role potentially most a konfliktna as she doesn’t suit the partner. He doesn’t want to play a role of younger. Interaction with people around as equals is optimum for the prevention of the role conflict.
- Maintenance of balance of interdependence in decisions and actions. Everyone ideally seeks to do that he wants and when wants. However freedom of each of us can’t be provided due to freedom of those with whom we interact. Too big dependence of the person on the partner limits his freedom and can provoke the conflict. During communication it is necessary to support comfortable balance of interdependence.
- Violation of balance of mutual services in interaction of a dyad of people is fraught with intensity in their relationship and the possible conflict. If the person has rendered to the colleague substandard service, and in reply hasn’t received service approximately of the same value eventually, then the balance of services is broken.
- Maintenance of balance of damage. If the damage is caused to the person, then he has desire to cause reciprocal damage to those people on whose fault I have suffered. Causing damage breaks balance of interpersonal or intergroup interaction and can become a conflict basis.
- The fifth balance which preservation promotes prevention of the conflicts consists in balance of a self-assessment and external assessment. In the course of social interaction people constantly estimate each other. The self-assessment of the behavior is peculiar to the person, and he as a basis of an assessment more often chooses positive sides of the personality. At evaluation of the work of the subordinate by the chief he estimates more often on what the subordinate didn’t manage to make in comparison with standard requirements.
Treat the factors interfering emergence of the conflicts also:
- Personnel policy. The correct selection and placement of personnel taking into account not only the qualified indicators, but also psychological qualities of personnel significantly reduce probability of emergence of the conflicts.
- High authority of the head. The high authority of the head created on the basis of his personal and professional and moral qualities is guarantee of stability of the relations in collective.
- Positive traditions. They act as additional norms of social regulation of behavior.
- High motivation. The high motivation in some cases eliminirut even psychological incompatibility.
- Prestige. The prestige factor is underestimated now, but as show psychological researches, his importance is high. For example, increase of prestige of activity during well put personnel work, promotes involvement of highly qualified, initiative specialists.
- Psychological climate. Friendliness, friendly mutual aid, mutual assistance, prevalence of positive emotions is frequent, simplicity of the relations are a basis for formation of such important social and psychological phenomena as labor enthusiasm.
Conflicts are natural in all walks of daily life – both at workplace and home. Thus, conflict is ever present and both charming and maddening. But conflict is a complex and big subject. There are many sources of conflict. Conflict occurs when individuals or groups are not obtaining what they need or want and are seeking their own self-interest.
Sometimes the individual is not aware of the need and unconsciously starts to act out. Other times, the individual is very aware of what he or she wants and actively works at achieving the goal. It would be better to identify conflict at an early stage and come to an understanding.
The concept of conflict is controversial. Psychologists and sociologists have given different meanings. It is being defined as a process by few, an obstructive behavior, and goal incompatibility by others. Conflict can be expressed as:
Conflict is a process, where perception (real or otherwise) leads to disruption of desirable state of harmony and stability in an interdependent world.
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