Sociology of Education, Ivy League Universities

Higher education

In the US, there is no clear definition of the concept of <higher education institution>. In principle, any training for the maintenance of carrying out further training after high school, the so-called <post-secondary educational institutions> (postsecondary school), are equally likely to be called <College> <school> <institution> or <University>. Higher FORMATION – one of the most expensive things in the United States.

The procedure of admission and selection of applicants to US universities depend on their prestige. There are no uniform requirements for applicants. In particular, some universities carry out the selection by competitive examinations, interviews, testing, others only condition is the presence of secondary education (for example, an outdoor reception in the 2-year college). The general requirement for admission to the university is to present documents on the completion of secondary school; a list of the studied school subjects and estimations; the total number of points on the tests, the characteristics of the interview for admission.

A number of American universities and colleges welcome students performed on the results of the competition for high school graduation documents. However, the most prestigious universities organize competitive selection, tat as the number of applicants greatly exceeds the capacity of educational institutions.

Scheduled arrival and departure of experts on a national scale does not exist. Each high school student generates contingent on your system without having to worry about whether everything will finish the full course and where can <self-distribute>. Formally, the US universities accept the person of any age. Training time is also not limited. In recent years, there has been a tendency to reduce the scale of income both in public and in private colleges and universities, young people belonging to the middle stratum of the population due to the increase of tuition fees. The maximum value of average annual expenditure per student ranges from $ 7,000 in the state of up to 15 000 dollars in private universities. In the US, over 1,350 community colleges and 2,000 colleges and universities. Of these private – 65 percent.

Colleges: local, technical and primary education

These institutions offer training programs that are comparable to the first two years of university study. They can get a degree as a result of a four-year education. In addition, the feature of community colleges is that they offer courses of general education, technical education and vocational training, which give students the specialty. Because their goal is to enable education to anyone who wishes, community colleges usually take the majority of students to meet the essential requirements, and offer a wide selection of items at a relatively low cost of training.

In recent years, according to the course of reforming the American Graduate School of Education constantly improving the organization of educational process. Thus, the majority of students enrolled in colleges with the right to choose the mode of attendance and school schedules, including not only training system <part-time>, and classes on weekends and during vacations. Students incomplete school day, basically, do not plan to get on the end of the course of study an academic degree.

Four-year colleges and universities

Although the terms <College> and <University> are not identical, they are often used interchangeably in the United States. Usually colleges offer four-year training program, which allows to obtain a bachelor’s degree. Colleges can exist independently, offering exclusive programs of higher primary education, or be part of a university.

In the US, there are over two thousand traditional four-year colleges and universities, each of which has its own specifics. The college determines its objectives, specialization, and students receive rules. For example, liberal arts colleges emphasize the humanities, social sciences and languages.

Historically, the public universities in the United States divided into two main categories: research universities and universities of type <land-grant> and <B Grant>. Scientific and research universities are paying considerable attention to the research and educational work. As a rule, their training programs to a lesser extent related to applied research and more – with theoretical issledovaniyami.U ATU type <land-grant> and <B grant>, the so-called <land> and <sea> (the name literally reflect their orientation) made special emphasis on the application of knowledge in areas such as agriculture, engineering and technology (<land-grant>), and in the field of marine research (<B grant>).

Today, however, the traditional classification of universities is already obsolete: in a pretty fierce competition (in particular, funding sources) American universities are paying more or less equal attention and research, and applied fields of knowledge.

Many foundations and non-governmental organizations each year prepare a report on the kind of <quote> higher educational institutions of the country (for example, <Carnegie Classification>, which ranked all US universities). Traditionally one of the best universities include entering into informal (originally soccer) club – Harvard, Princeton, Yale, Columbia, Brown, Dartsmutsky, Cornell and Pennsylvania. Highly traded Michigan, Stanford, Chicago, California (Berkeley), the University of Illinois, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Williams College, Amherstkolledzh and Wellesley College (Massachusetts), Pomona College (CA), Swarthmore College (Pennsylvania ), Middlebury College (Vermont), Bowden College (Maine). Within this group <supervuzov> private universities more than the government.

The main form of studies is lectures given for streams, sometimes numbering up to thousands of students.

Concepts <academic group> does not exist, since each student on an individual program and attended lectures by choice. Typically, each student during a lecture given its abstract, that frees the student from doing abstract in our understanding.

Students listen to the lecturer and make notes in the text distributed to them. Ongoing lecture from 50 minutes to 2 hours, change – 10 minutes. Classes start at 8 am, weekends – Saturday and Sunday.

To obtain a bachelor’s degree, students must earn a certain number of credits and pass the required exams.

In contrast to the bachelor’s degree master’s degree in the United States is focused on specialized activities (music, business administration, engineering, education, etc.). Persons who have a bachelor’s degree, have to be trained for another 1-2 years to write and defend <abstract>, in some universities require knowledge of a foreign language. Abstracts can be viewed as an analytical report or statement of the applicant about his master’s degree research work on the selected theme.

The highest stage of preparation of highly skilled experts is training for doctoral programs focused on well-specialized training and independent scientific research. Admission to doctoral persons who, as a rule, a master’s degree, although in some universities it is sufficient bachelor’s degree.

Ivy League Universities.

Ivy League (Ivy League) – Association of the eight oldest universities in America: Harvard (Harvard), Princeton (Princeton), Yale (Yale), Brown (Brown), Colombia (Columbia), Cornell (Cornell), Dartmouth (Dartmouth) and Pennsylvania ( Pennsylvania).

Ivy League prestige is considered a benchmark in the US higher education. The name derives from the Ivy League thick green shoots of ivy encircles the old university building. A large number of American politicians, prominent economists, financiers, doctors and lawyers have been trained in one of the universities of the Ivy League.

Universities, members of the Ivy League, are the oldest institutions of higher education of America. All of them are located on the northeastern United States were created in the time of the colonization of the New World by England in XVII-XIX centuries.

What makes Ivy League universities are the best? Important components of a quality education colleges are the first level of training of the teaching staff and the amount of research. Among the graduates of the League of many Nobel Prize winners, prominent academics, and the winners of other scientific prizes. In addition, all the universities of the League – the richest private schools in the US and have the ability to allocate their own money to conduct many scientific developments and research.

League Universities possess vast territory, which they received from the state for use. Each campus is a city within a city with its own research centers, museums, libraries, theaters, communication and transport infrastructure. Each university publishes periodicals, has TV and radio.

Tuition fees in universities League is one of the most expensive in the world. For the year of study, students pay more than 30 thousand. Dollars. But, despite the high cost of training, competition for admission is incredibly high. After diploma education institution Ivy League – it’s not only the pledge of future successful career, but also evidence of belonging to a select group of talents. Dating and relationships established in the university, have an impact on all subsequent human life. Every year in the League universities tend to get tens of thousands of students, not only from America but also from around the world. Foreign students make up 5-9% of the total composition.

Ivy League Universities:

Brown University (Brown University) – Providence, Rhode Island.

Founded in 1764 under the name College of Rhode Island. It was renamed in 1804 in honor of Nicholas Brown, one of the graduates of the university and a member of the Brown family, who played a major role in the organization and management of the University. The motto of the private university In Deo speramus “« In God we trust ”

Symbol (mascot) – Bear.

Brown University is also known for his unusual training program, the so-called New program launched in 1969. Under this program, students have the full range of subjects (no compulsory subjects), and can receive a pass / fail instead of on any subject evaluations, if they so prefer. The University consists of three main academic divisions: the College for students of bachelor’s degree; Graduate School for graduate students – candidates master’s degrees and a Ph.D. and medical department’s degree of Doctor of Medicine.

Harvard University (Harvard University) – Cambridge, Massachusetts

The oldest US university, was founded in 1636 as a college. Since 1639 bears the name of the English minister, BA, John Harvard, who emigrated to America and bequeathed half of his possessions to college and library.

University motto – “VERITAS” «Truth»

Symbol – purple color.

Today, Harvard trained over 18 000 students from all regions of the US and 100 countries. The University consists of 9 faculties: Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Harvard Institute of Theology, Harvard Institute of Legal Sciences, Harvard Institute of Business, Graduate School Design, Graduate School of Pedagogical Sciences, Institute of Public Health, Institute of Administration. John F. Kennedy.

In the university seven US presidents were raised, as well as 40 Nobel Prize winners and a huge list of staff every year received the Pulitzer Prize. At different times there has learned a lot of celebrities. Harvard is a source of manpower for the ruling elite, and teachers – the greatest wealth of the university. Harvard University is proud of its scientific advances – including the development of the world-famous medical faculty.

At Harvard, most of students from his native Massachusetts and New York, 8.3% – foreigners. Almost all students at Harvard University and College first year live in dormitories on campus, in or near the Harvard yard. Students who have good grades and other achievements, live in the so-called “houses”, which are a place to stay, and the administrative division of the university to help students adapt to the social environment of the school.

Dartmouth College (Dartmouth College) – Hanover, New Hampshire

Founded in 1769 by the Reverend Eleazar forks and Samson Okkum. Motto: “Vox clamantis in deserto” «The voice of one crying in the wilderness”

Symbol – green.

Dartmouth – the smallest of all the members of the Ivy League. Special attention here is paid to the preparation of Bachelor (undergraduate program). In addition to their own college at Dartmouth has 21 faculties, which carry out preparation of masters in various fields, “Liberal Arts and Sciences.” Dartmouth rightly be called the cradle of business education since it is here were first assigned to the degree of MBA (Master of Business Administration). His birth of this institution is also obliged to BASIC computer programming language.

Now Dartmouth College students from around the world, confirming the high prestige of this educational institution in the field of international studies and international relations, tolerance problems. At the same time, the reputation of one of Dartmouth’s most discerning and demanding of universities: each year to reach only about 17% of applicants who applied for admission.

Yale University (Yale University) – New Haven, Connecticut

Founded in 1701 under the name of Collegiate School.

Motto: “Lux et Veritas” (Light and Truth)

Symbol – Bulldog.

At Yale University comprises 12 departments: Yale College, a four-year education which is completed bachelor’s degree; postgraduate studies in various specialties, as well as 10 professional faculties. Yale College The program is an in-depth and breadth. Currently, Yale is one of the best universities in the world. It trained 11 thousand students from 50 American states and from over 110 different countries. Two thousand teaching staff are of the highest qualifications in their fields of expertise. The main part of the university covers an area of ​​170 (69 hectares) acres. The university also owns more than 600 acres (243 hectares) of land on which there are all sorts of sports facilities and park area.

Yale University Library – the third-largest US library, and the second in the world among university libraries. It has a population of 11 million units and has unique collections, archives, records, maps and other rare artifacts.

Columbia University (Columbia University) – New York, NY

Founded under the name of King’s College in 1754.

Motto: “In lumine tuo videbimus” ( «In the light of your will see the light”)

Symbol – lion.

University very soon became known as an educational institution that prepares the political elite. And although the scientific prestige of Columbia University has always been very high, it is believed that this institution does not prepare scientists and theorists, and, above all, men of action. Notable alumni and persons associated with the university, are five so-called founding fathers (Founding Fathers – a group of American politicians who have played key roles in the base of the American States, in particular, in the conquest of independence and the establishment of the principles of a new political system), the four presidents the United States, including the current – Barack Obama, 97 Nobel laureates, Pulitzer Prize-winning 101, 25 holders of Academy Award (also known as the Oscar Award), 26 heads of foreign states

Cornell University (Cornell University) – Ithaca, NY

Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell, a businessman and one of the founders of the telegraph industry, and Andrew White, a renowned scholar and politician. Motto: “Any person-any study” ( «any person – any training”)

Symbol – red.

Cornell University – the youngest in the Ivy League. Apparently, the “youth” of the university due to its reputation as one of the most innovative in the United States: it was first introduced there was very liberal system of free choice of students training programs. Cornell also became the first American university, which was originally permitted joint training between men and women. In addition, it is here that there was a first in the United States independent University Press. Finally, this is the first American private university, partly funded by the state (four of his faculty subsidizes NY).

Currently, Cornell 7 colleges preparing bachelors and 6 faculties of schools producing masters. In all sorts of rankings University, as a rule, have very high rank.

University of Pennsylvania (University of Pennsylvania) – Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

It was founded by Benjamin Franklin in 1751 under the name of The Philadelphia Academy. University of Pennsylvania – one of the oldest institutions of higher education and the first of them, officially called the University.

Motto: “Leges sine Moribus vanae” ( «Laws without morals are useless”)

Symbol – a Quaker.

13% of students accepted each year – foreigners. At the same time the University of Pennsylvania is famous for very stringent requirements for “quality” abiturientskogo contingent. So, here it takes only about 20% of the applicants competitors. This fully meets the high demands of the University’s reputation. According to the annual ranking, the University of Pennsylvania on a regular basis among the five leading US universities. In general, the University of Pennsylvania is considered a leader in areas such as the humanities, architecture, engineering and pedagogy. Finally, the university’s largest universities among Ivy League annual budget equal to US $ 4.25 billion.

Princeton University (Princeton University) – Princeton, NJ

Founded in 1746 under the name College of New Jersey (College of New Jersey). In 1896, Princeton University received the status.

Motto: “Dei subnumine viget” ( «Under the authority of God flourishes”)

Symbol – the tiger.

Princeton University is a Princeton college, graduate schools and research centers. Deliky Albert Einstein worked at the university, and among the graduates – 2 US President (James Madison and Woodrow Wilson), more than a hundred senators, congressmen and state legislators, the governor 44. The educational process at the university is organized according to individual curricula and organically linked with the research work. The teaching staff is highly experienced at Princeton. In the second quarter of the XX century, there are 16 Nobel Prize winners.

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Sociology of Education, Ivy League Universities

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